محیط رسوبی، چینه‌نگاری سکانسی و کیفیت مخزنی سازند کنگان در میدان گازی پارس جنوبی، ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه حوضه‎های رسوبی و نفت، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه حوضه های رسوبی و نفت، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه حوضه های رسوبی و نفت، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بافت، ساخت رسوبی و فوناهای موجود منجر به شناسایی دوازده رخساره کربناته- تبخیری شده است. این رخساره‌ها در سه کمربند رخساره‌ای پهنه جزرومدی، لاگون و شول کربناته نهشته شده‌اند. گسترش پهنه جزرومدی به همراه رسوبات تبخیری و رخساره‌های ترومبولیتی و استروماتولیتی، عدم وجود ساختمان‌های ریفی دارای تداوم جانبی، حضور گسترده گل کربناته و نبود رخساره‌های ریزشی و لغزشی تأییدکننده یک محیط رمپ کربناته از نوع هموکلینال برای سازند کنگان است. رخساره‌های شناسایی شده بر اساس مشخصات پتروفیزیکی که حاصل فرایندهای اولیه رسوبگذاری و دیاژنز می‌باشد در قالب هفت گونه سنگی طبقه‌بندی شده‌اند که در آنها گونه‌ سنگی نخست (RT1) فاقد خواص مطلوب مخزنی بوده و به ترتیب به سمت RT7 کیفیت مخزنی افزایش می‌یابد. تغییرات جانبی و عمودی رخساره‌ها منجر به شناسایی دو سکانس رسوبی رده سوم شده است که الگوی انباشت چینه‌ای در آنها توسط رخساره‌های ساب‌تایدال با مشخصات مخزنی مناسب که توسط رخساره‌های تبخیری و پریتایدال با مشخصات پایین مخزنی در برگرفته شده‌اند، مشخص می‌شود. بیشترین کیفیت مخزنی سازند کنگان در دو زون مخزنی K1 و K2 منطبق بر انتهای TST، سطح بیشینه پیشروی آب دریا (mfs) و قاعده HST در سکانس‌های رسوبی شناسایی شده می‌باشد که در رخساره‌های شول کربناته واقع شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sedimentary environment, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Kangan Formation in South Pars Gas Field, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Umid Kakemem 1
  • Mohammad Adabi 2
  • Ehsan Dehyadegari 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistance Professor, Department of Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Depositional texture, sedimentary structure and present fauna led to characterize twelve carbonate- evaporate facies. These facies were classified in three facies belts including tidal flat, lagoon and shoal. Developpment of tidal zones together with evaporate deposits and thrombolite facies (signs to a shallow depositional environment), the absence of continuous reef‐frame builders, high production of carbonate mud, absents of calciturbidite, tempestites deposits and slump structures are evidences for a homoclinal carbonate ramp setting. The facies based on petrophysical characteristics which is the results of depositional texture and diagenesis are classified in seven reservoir rock types. In which, the first rock type (RT1) has weak reservoir property and toward RT7 reservoir quality will increase. Facies variation related to sea level fluctuations led to subdivide the whole strata into two 3rd order sequences. Facies stacking patterns in the sequences characterized by subtidal facies (lagoon and shoal) tend to have the most reservoir quality that covered by evaporative (Mf1) and peritidal facies (Mf2 to Mf4) with low-reservoir quality. The most reservoir quality in both K1 and K2 reservoir zones is coincident with late TST, maximum flooding surface (mfs) and late HST in identified depositional sequences which is settled in high-energy shoal facies intervals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sedimentary Environment
  • Reservoir rock types
  • Sequence Stratigraphy
  • Reservoir quality
  • Kangan Formation
References

Ahr, W. M., 2008- Geology of carbonate reservoirs: the identification, description and characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs in carbonate rocks. John Wiley & Sons, p, 296. (https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470370650)

Alsharhan, A. S. and Kendall, C. S. C., 2003- Holocene coastal carbonates and evaporites of the southern Arabian Gulf and their ancient analogues. Earth-Science Reviews, 61(3-4), pp.191-243. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00110-1)

Alsharhan, A. S. and Nairn, A. E. M., 1997- Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum Geology of the Middle East. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 843 p.

Amao, A. O., Kaminski, M. A. and Setoyama, E., 2016- Diversity of Foraminifera in a shallow restricted lagoon in Bahrain. Micropalaeontology, 62, pp.197-211. (http://www.micropress.org/microaccess/check/1989)

Amel, H., Jafarian, A., Husinec, A., Koeshidayatullah, A. and Swennen, R., 2015- Microfacies, depositional environment and diagenetic evolution controls on the reservoir quality of the Permian Upper Dalan Formation, Kish Gas Field, Zagros Basin. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 67, pp.57-71. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.04.012)

Angiolini, L., Balini, M., Garzanti, E., Nicora, A., Tintori, A., Crasquin S. and Muttoni, G., 2003- Permian climatic and paleogeographic changes in Northern Gondwana: the Khuff Formation of Interior Oman. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 191 (3-4), 269-300.

Bosence, D., 2005- A genetic classification of carbonate platforms based on their basinal and tectonic settings in the Cenozoic. Sedimentary Geology, 175(1-4), pp.49-72. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2004.12.030)

Boudaugher-Fadel, M. K., 2018- Evolution and geological significance of larger benthic foraminifera. UCL Press, Second Edition. (https://doi.org/10.14324/111.9781911576938)

Burchette, T. P. and Wright, V. P., 1992- Carbonate ramp depositional systems. Sedimentary Geology, 79(1-4), pp.3-57. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-0738(92)90003-A)

Catuneanu, O. and Zecchin, M., 2013- High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of clastic shelves II: controls on sequence development. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 39(1), pp.26-38. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.08.010)

Catuneanu, O., 2017- Sequence stratigraphy: Guidelines for a standard methodology. In Stratigraphy and Timescales (Vol. 2, pp. 1-57). Academic Press. (https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.sats.2017.07.003)

Demicco, R. V. and Hardie, L. A., 1994- Sedimentary Structures and Early Diagenetic Features of Shallow Marine Carbonate Deposits. SEPM Atlas Series, SEPM, Tulsa.

Dickson, J. A. D., 1966- Carbonate identification and genesis as revealed by staining. Journal of Sedimentary Research 36, no. 2: 491-505. (https://doi.org/10.1306/74D714F6-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D)

Dunham, R. J., 1962- Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 1, 108-121.

Esrafili-Dizaji, B., Harchegani, F. K., Rahimpour-Bonab, H. and Kamali, M. R., 2013- 10 Controls on Reservoir Quality in the Early Triassic Kangan Formation, Iran.

Flügel, E., 2010- Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. Springer Science & Business Media. (https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03796-2)

Hips, K. and Haas, J., 2006- Calcimicrobial stromatolites at the Permian–Triassic boundary in a western Tethyan section, Bükk Mountains, Hungary. Sedimentary Geology, 185(3-4), pp.239- 253. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.12.016)

Insalaco, E., Virgone, A., Courme, B., Gaillot, J., Kamali, M., Moallemi, A., Lotfpour, M. and Monibi, S., 2006- Upper Dalan Member and Kangan Formation between the Zagros Mountains and offshore Fars, Iran: depositional system, biostratigraphy and stratigraphic architecture. GEOARABIA-MANAMA-, 11(2), p.75.

Koehrer, B. S., Heymann, C., Prousa, F. and Aigner, T., 2010- Multiple-scale facies and reservoir quality variations within a dolomite body–outcrop analog study from the Middle Triassic, SW German Basin. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27(2), pp.386-411. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.09.009)

Lokier, S. W., Bateman, M. D., Larkin, N. R., Rye, P. and Stewart, J. R., 2015- Late Quaternary sea-level changes of the Persian Gulf. Quaternary Research, 84(1), pp.69-81.

Lucia, F. J., 2007- Carbonate reservoir characterization: An integrated approach. Springer Science & Business Media, p. 366. (https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-72742-2)

Mehrabi, H., Mansouri, M., Rahimpour-Bonab, H., Tavakoli, V. and Hassanzadeh, M., 2016- Chemical compaction features as potential barriers in the Permian-Triassic reservoirs of Southern Iran. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 145, pp.95-113. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.03.020)

Peyravi, M., Kamali, M. R. and Kalani, M., 2010- Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Early Triassic Kangan Formation in the northern part of the Persian Gulf: implications for reservoir characteristics. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 33(4), pp.371-386. (doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-5457.2010.00485.x)

Pomar, L., 2001- Types of carbonate platforms: a genetic approach. Basin Research, 13(3), p.313-334. (https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0950-091x.2001.00152.x)

Preto, N., Breda, A., Dal Corso, J., Spötl, C., Zorzi, F. and Frisia, S., 2015- Primary dolomite in the Late Triassic Travenanzes Formation, Dolomites, Northern Italy: facies control and possible bacterial influence. Sedimentology, 62(3), pp.697-716. (https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12157)

Purser, B. H. and Evans, G., 1973- Regional sedimentation along the Trucial coast, SE Persian Gulf. In The Persian Gulf (pp. 211-231). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. (https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-65545-6_13)

Rahimpour-Bonab, H., Asadi-Eskandar, A. and Sonei, R., 2009- Effects of the Permian–Triassic boundary on reservoir characteristics of the South Pars gas field, Persian Gulf. Geological journal, 44(3), pp.341-364. (https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.1148)

Shinn, E. A., 1983- Tidal flat environment. In Carbonate depositional environments, (eds P.A. Scholle, D.G. Bebout and C.H. Moore). AAPG Memoir, 33, 171-210.

Tucker, M. E. and Wright, V. P., 1990- Carbonat Sedimentology, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 496. (https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444314175)

Warren, J. K., 2006- Evaporites: Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons. Springer, Brunei.