Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Geology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


The Fariman complex is located in the northeast of Iran and southeast of Mashhad, contains a variety of rocks from the Permian to the present era that have undergone several stages of deformation. In this paper, the structural geometry of faults and folds of the region is analyzed and based on it, the deformation stages of Fariman complex are identified, which indicates its evolution during 3 stages of deformation. In the first stage of deformation, tectonic forces along with the thermal stage have caused the transformation of sediments and the formation of first generation foliation and folds in the region. First-generation thrusts also formed during this phase, thrusting Palaeotethys remnants. The second stage of deformation has led to the formation of the second generation of thrusts and folds in the region. Kinematic analysis of second generation thrusts indicates two reverse motion phases with leftlateral strike-slip component and right–lateral strike–slip with reverse component.Its reverse motions, which result in the formation of misplaced massive carbonate associated with the second stage of deformation, and its dextral motion, which cut and displace previous structures and affect all rock units in the region, the third stage of deformation is analyzed.


Main Subjects

Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L., Whitechurch, H., Vrielynck, B., Spakman, W., and Wortel, R., 2011. Zagros orogeny: a subduction-dominated process. Geological Magazine, v.148(5-6), p.692-725, doi:10.1017/S001675681100046X.
Alavi, M., 1991. Sedimentary and structural characteristics of the Paleo- Tethys remants in northeastern Iran, Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 103, p. 9183-9192.
Alavi, M., 1996. The Virani ophiolite complex and surrounding rocks. Geologische Rundshau,v. 68 (1),p. 334–341.
Allen, M., Jackson, J., and Walker, R., 2004. Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics, 23, TC2008, doi:10.1029/2003TC001530.
Austermann, J., and Iaffaldano, G., 2013.  The role of the Zagros orogeny in slowing down Arabia-Eurasia convergence since ~ 5 Ma. Tectonics, v. 32, p.351–363, doi:10.1002/tect.20027.
Boulin, J., 1991. Structures in Southwest Asia and evolution of the eastern Tethys. Tectonophysics,
v. 196 p. 211-268.
Davies, R. G., Jones, C. R., Hamzepour, B., and Clark, G. C., 1972. Geology of the Masuleh sheet, 1:100,000, NW Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, Report 24, pp.110.
Hessami, K., Koyi, H., Talbot, C. J., Tabasi, H., and Shabanian, E., 2001. Progressive unconformities within an evolving foreland fold-thrust belt, Zagros Mountain. Journal of the Geological Society of London,v.158, p.969-981, doi:10.1144/0016-764901-007.
Hollingsworth, J., Fattahi, M., Walker, R., Talebian, M., Bahroudi, A., Balourchi, M.J., Jackson, J., Compley, A., 2010. Oroclinal bending, distributed thrust and strike-slip faulting, and the accommodation of Arabia-Eurasia convergence in NE Iran since Oligocene. Geophysical Journal International,v. 181, p.1214-1246, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04591.x.
Javidfakhr, B., Bellier, O., Shabanian, E., Ahmadian, S., and Saidi, A., 2011. Plio-Quaternary tectonic regime changes in the transition zone between Alborz and Kopeh Dagh mountain ranges (NE Iran). Tectonophysics,v. 506, p.86–108, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.04.013.
Kozur, H., and Mostler, H., 1991. Pelagic Permian conodonts from an oceanic sequence at Sang-e- Sefid (Fariman, NE Iran). Abh Geol B-A,v. 38,p.101- 110.
Ruttner, A.W., 1991. Geology of the Aghdarband area (Kopet Dagh, NE-Iran). Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt,v. 38,p.7-79.
Shabanian, E., Bellier, O., Abbassi, M.R., Siam, E. L., and Farbod, Y., 2010. Plio-Quaternary stress states in NE Iran: Kopeh Dagh and Allah Dagh-Binalud mountain ranges, Tectonophysics,v. 480,p. 280–304, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.10.022.
Stocklin, J., 1974. Possible ancient continental margins in Iran. In: Burk, C., Drake, C. (Eds.), The Geology of Continental Margins. Springer, Berlin, pp. 873–887.
Taheri, J., Fursich, F.T., and Wilmsen, M., 2009. Stratigraphy, depositional environments and geodynamic significance of the Upper Bajocian-Bathonian Kashaf Rud formation, NE Iran. In: Brunet M-F, Wilmsen M, Granath JW (eds) South Caspian to Central Iran Basins. Geol Soc London Spec Publ,v. 312, p.175–188, doi:10.1144/SP312.10.
Topuz, G., Hegner, E., Homam, M., Ackerman, L., Pfander, J., and Karimi, H., 2018. Geochemical and geochronological evidence for a Middle Permian oceanic plateau fragment in the Paleo-Tethyan suture zone of NE Iran. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology,v. 173, p.81, doi:10.1007/s00410-018-1506-x.
Wilmsen, M., Fursich, F.T., and Taheri, J., 2009. The Shemshak Group (Lower Middle Jurassic) of the Binalud Mountains, NE Iran: stratigraphy, depositional environments and geodynamic implications. Geol Soc London Spec Publ,v. 312, p.175–188, doi: 10.1144/SP312.8.
Zanchetta, S., Berra, F., Zanchi, A., Bergomi, M., Caridroit, M., Nicora, M., and Heidarzadeh, G., 2013. The record of the Late Palaeozoic active margin of the Palaeotethys in NE Iran: Constraints on the Cimmerian orogeny. Gondwana Research,v. 24,p.1237-1266, doi:10.1016/
Zanchi, A., Ghassemi, R., Balini, S., and Zancheta, S., 2015. Oblique convergence during the Cimmerian collision: evidence from the Triassic Aghdarband basin, NE Iran, Gondwana Research, v.38, p.149-170, doi:10.1016/