Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, School of Geosciences, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood; Department of Geology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Geology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch; Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Geological Survey of Canada, Otawa, Canada

5 Professor, ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia


The Bavanat (Jian) pelitic-mafic- / Besshi-type Cu-Zn-Ag volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit locates in the Bavanat area, South Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Mineralization occurs as two stratigraphic ore horizons discontinuously within the Surian metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary complex through more than 35 km in the area. Stratigraphicaly, from footwall toward hangingwall, four ore facieses were distinguished within the Bavanat (Jian) orebodies including: 1) vein-veinlets or stringer, 2) vent complex, 3) bedded-banded, and 4) hydrothermal-exhalative sediments. The ores have various primary and secondary textures and structures, although most of the primary ones were obscured during metamorphism and deformation. The relict primary textures include massive, semi-massive, banded, brecciated, disseminated and vein-veinlet ores. In the stringer and specially in  the vent complex facies, chalcopyrite replaced pyrite indicating influx of a hot copper-rich fluid into the pyrite-rich massive ores during zone refining process. Also, a metal and mineralogical zonation is obsereved in the Bavanat deposit. The major wall rock alterations in the Bavanat deposit from center to margins are silicic, quartz-chlorite, chloritic, chlorite-carbonate and chlorite-sericite, which show zonal pattern. Based on electron microprobe studies, chlorite is of iron-rich type. The abundant pyrrhotite in the Bavanat deposit might be due to low oxygen and sulfur fogacity, and occurrence of abundant chlinochlor in the alteration zones may indicate low pH (between 4.3 and 5.3) conditions for the ore-forming fluids. The high amounts of Cu and Zn, and low amounts of Pb, along with fluid inclusion studies results indicate high temprature (300-350 °C) for the ore fluids. Based on this study, the ore fluids responsibe for formation of the Bavanat deposit were hot, reduced and acidic, which entered into a confined marine basins, followed by ore deposition.