Gheshlagh district contains coal deposits in a large syncline in Shemshak group sediments in East Alborz. To determine the palaeoenvironmental setting of the coal deposits based on organic and mineral components, eleven samples from coal seams from four active mines are collected. Minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, siderite, biotite, montmorillonite and dolomite are identified in Gheshlagh coal mines. The Ground Water Index (GWI) suggests ombrotrophic hydrological conditions for coal layers in Gheshlagh coal region. K13 and k11 layers have much higher GWI among others due to its higher mineral content than other layers. Vegetation index (VI) of the Gheshlagh coals is less than 3, which could indicative of the dominance of aquatic/herbaceous plants in the formation of coal seams. Petrographic data on organic and inorganic matter with facies diagram suggest evidences of anaerobic to low oxygen, alkaline conditions and variations in water level with relative proximity to the marine environment.