Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Geology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Geology, College of Basic Sciences, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Geology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Vertebrate fossil fauna of Late Miocene age in Maragheh contains various mammals preserved in pyroclastic deposits of southern Sahand volcano. This study has been conducted on Gazella capricornis (a perfect skull). Since no other sample with such a good perfectness was found before at other localities (previous ones were isolated horns or tooth rows), it can be proposed as a complemental to the samples type. Gazella capricornis was found not only in Maragheh but also in Samos and Pikermi (Greece), Akkaşdaği (Turkey), Bulgaria, … (east of Europe and west of Asia); which indicates similarities in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene fossil  fauna, paleogeography, relative ages, sediments and paleoecology between these regions.


Akgun, F., Kanju, T., Forsten, A. &Atalay, Z., 2000- Biostratigraphic data (Mammalia and   Palynology ) from the Upper Miocene In ces u Formation at Duzyayla (Hafic-Sivas, Central Anatolia) ,Turkish J. Earth Sci., 9:57-67.
Augustı´, J.,  Anto´n, M., 2002-  Mammoths, Sabertooths, and Hominids : 65 million years of mammalian Evolution in Europe. Colombia University press. New York.313PP.
Bernor, L. R., 1985- Systematic and Evolutionary relationships of the Hipparionine Horsees from Maragheh, Iran (Late Miocene, Turolian age). College of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Laboratoary of Paleontology, Howard University, Washington D.C. 20059, 15(4): 173-269.
Bernor, L. R., Fahlbusch, V. & Mittmann, H., 1996- The evolution of western Eurasian Neogene mammal faunas.Colombia University press. New York.479PP.
Deng, T., 2006- Paleoecological comparison between late Miocene localities of Chaina and Greece based on Hipparion faunas. Geodiversitas. 28(3):499-516.
Gray, J. E.,1821- ON the natural arrangement of vertebrate mammals.London Medical Repository 15(1):296-310.
Kostopoulos. D., 2005- The Bovidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the late Miocene of Akkasdagi ,Turkey, Geodiversitas:27(4).747-791.
Kostopoulos. D., 2009- The Late Miocene Mammal Fauna of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection (14. Bovidae), Beitr. Palaont., 31:345-389.
Nada, A. C., 2008- Comments on the Pinjor Mammalian Fauna of the Siwalik Group in relation to   the post-Siwalik faunas of Peninsular India and Indo-Gangetic Plain .Quaternary international(INQUA):192.6-13.
Owen, R., 1848- Description of teeth and portions of jaws of two extinct anthracotheroid quadrupeds (Hyopotamus vectianus and H.bovinus) discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings in the Eocene deposits on the N. W. coast of the Isle of Wight.Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London,4:104-141.
Rogl, F., 1999- Mediterranan and Parathethys. Facts and Hypotheses of an Oligocene to Miocene paleogeography., Geologica Carpathica,50(4):339-349.
Scopoli, G. A., 1777- Introduction ad historiam naturalem sistens genera lapidium,plantarum et animalium hactenus detecta,caracteribus essentialibus donta ,in tribus divisa,subinde ad leges naturae.prague.506pp.
Sen, S., Seyitoglu, G., Karadenizli, L., Kazanci, N.,Varol, B. & Araz, H., 1998- Mammalian biochronology of Neogene deposits and its correlation with the lithostratigraghy in the the Cankiri- Corum  Basin,central Anatolia, Turkey., Eclogae geol. 91:307-320.
Simpson, G. G, 1945-The principles of classification and aclassification of mammals.Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 85:1-350.
Vaughan, T. A., Ryan, J. & Czaplewski, N., 2000- Mammalogy 4th edition. Harcourt college publishers. 550p.
Wagner, A., 1848- Urweltliche Saugethier-Uberreste aus Griechenland.-Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 5:333-378, Munchen.