Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Geological Survey of Iran, Marine Geology Management,Tehran, Iran

2 Geological Survey of Iran, Marine Geology Management,Tehran, Iran Research Instiute for Earth Sciences, Geological Survey of Iran Theran, Iran

3 Department of Georgraphy, Earthscience Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University, Theran, Iran

4 Faculty of Geography, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.


Mud volcanoes are natural and site-seeing phenomena in the world, particularly in the Alps and Himalayas belts.  Mud volcanoes usually appear in form of a dome or a pool. The mud volcanoes comprise water, gas and mud. with plenty of applications, like tourism, mud therapy, supplying of essential body trace elements, and their usage as mud for pottery. In Iran most of the mud volcanoes appear in coastal plains of the Caspian and Oman Seas. A mud flow was formerly found between Minab and Jask in Hormozgan Province. These types of exclusive, beautiful and natural phenomena require more attention by tourism industry. On the other hand, mud flow must be introduced as the most important geotourism phenomenon of northern coast of the Oman Sea. In this research, after data collection, including topography and geology maps, AIRS satellite data and aerial photos, remote sensing verifications were implemented. Then, mud flow determination was completed by field work studies and checking. A sediment sample was taken from each mud flow in the field work, then analyses of major, accessory and trace elements were carried out by using ICP-OES. About 30 small and big mud volcanoes around of Gavak mountain and 6 mud volcanoes at Gatan and Tojak area were determined in Hormozgan province that they have not been introduced before. The biggest mud volcanoe (Aryana) has cone with 73m hight at Gatan area and the smallest one has cone with less than 1m at Gavak area. Meantime, hydrogeochemical studies or determination of the percentage of available elements for all mud volcanoes were implemented. Since this geomorphological phenomenon indicates tectonic activity of a region, hence there is a possibility of mild earthquake and faulting occurrence. This issue must be considered in construction of buildings and certain fixed structures, such as bridges. Emitted gases through mud volcanoes relatively indicate the internal conditions of the Earth, particularly existence of oil and gas reservoirs.  Mud flow is an index for availability of oil and gas reservoirs.  They are used for prediction of availability of these reservoirs inside the Earth.


Arshadi, S. 1983- tectonic implication of the geochmical data from the makranigneous, Island Arc. 676- 689.
Guliyev, I. Feizullayev, A. 2001-  "All About Mud Volcanoes", Geology Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of  Sciences.
       Barber, A. J., Tjokrosapoetro, S., Charlton T. R., 1986- Mud volcanoes, shale diapirs, wrench fault and melanges in    accretionary complexes, eastern Indonesia, Bull. Am. Assoc. Pet.Geol. 70, 1729-1741.
Critelli, S. Derosa, R. & Platt, JP. 1990- Sandstone deterial modes in the markan accretionary wedege, south west  Pakistan, sedimentory Geology, 241-260.
Farhoudi, G., Karig, D. E., 1977- Makran of Iran and Pakistan as an active arc system. Geology 5, 664–668.
Goubkin, I. M., Fedorov S. F., 1938-  Mud volcanoes of the Soviet Union and their Connection with the genesis of petroleum fields in Crimean-Caucasus geologic province. USSR Academy of Science, Moscow (in Russian).
Hedberg, H. D., 1980- Methane generation and petroleum migration. In: Roberts III, W.H., Cordell, R.J. (eds.), Problems of petroleum migration, AAPG Studies in Geology 10, 179- 206.
Higgins, G. E., Saunders J. B.,1973- Mud volcanoes - their nature and origin: contribution to the geology and paleobiology of the Carribbean and adjacent areas, Verh. Naturforsch.Geschel. Basel, 84, 101-152
Kidd, R. G. W.  & McCall, G. J. H.  1985- Plate tectonics and the evolution of Makran. In McCall, G. J. H. (ed) East Iran Project, Area No. I. Geological Survey of Iran, Report, 1, 564- 618.
McCall, G. J. H. (ed) 1985- East Iran Project, Area No. I. Geological Survey of Iran, Report, 1, 564- 618.
Milkov, A.V., 2002 Worldwide distribution of submarine mud volcanoes and associated gas hydrates, Mar. Geol. 167, 29-42
Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R., Apanasovich, T.V., Dadashev F.G., 2003. Global gas flux from mud volcanoes: a significant source of fossil methane in the atmosphere and the ocean, Geoph. Res. Lett., 30 (2), 1037, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016358.
Rakhmanov, R. R., 1987- Mud volcanoes and their importance in forecasting of subsurface petroleum potential. Nedra , Moscow (in Russian).
Taponnier, P., Mattauer, M., Proust, F., and Cassaigneau, Ch., 1982. Mesozoic Ophiolites,Sutures, and large scale Tectonic Movements of Afghanistan, Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters, 52, 355-371.
Vitafenzi , 1979- Contribution to be Quaternary Geology of Southern of Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, Report,27:30-38
Yakubov, A. A., Alizade, A. A., Zeinalov, M. M., 1971-Mud volcanoes of Azerbajan SSR. Atlas. Elm, Baku (in Russian).