Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Theran, Iran

2 Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


SAR interferometry has shown its abilities in measuring the surface deformation in various applications. Atmospheric signals as an important factor affecting the interferometric measurements have temporally uncorrelated and complicated behavior. In this paper, a model based on the error source is presented to reduce the atmospheric contributions on the interferometric measurements in Mashhad subsidence area. In this model, the Full-Resolution (RF) MODIS data and meteorological information were used in order to estimate the water vapor and reduce the pressure effect, respectively. Moreover, water drops as well as the clouds effects were considered in the proposed model. Utilizing error propagation, model error was estimated as 7.2 mm. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) as a quantitative comparison between GPS measurements and interferometric results showed an improvement from 9 mm (before atmospheric correction) to 2 mm after applying the correction model.


 Albert, P., 2004- Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapour for numerical weather prediction. Ph.D. Thesis of Ferei University of Berlin.
Dehghani, M., Valadan Zouj, M., J., Biggs, J., Mansourian, A., Parsons, B., & Wright, T., 2009- RADAR Interferometry Time Series Analysis of Mashhad Subsidence, Journal of International Society of Remote Sensing (ISRS).
 European Space Agency, 2006- MERIS Handbook, Oct.
 Goldstein, R. M. & Werner, C. L., 1998- Radar interferogram filtering for geophysical applications. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, No. 21, pp. 4035 – 8,.
Hanssen, R. F., 2001- Radar Interferometry: Data interpretation and Error Analysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
 Hanssen, R. F., 1998- Atmospheric Heterogeneities in ERS Tandem SAR Interferometry, 136 pp., Delft Univ. Press, Delft, Netherlands.
 Kramer, H. J., 2002- Observation of the earth and its environment, Springer.
Li, Z., Muller, J.-P.,  Cross, P. and Fielding , E. J.,  2005- Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) atmospheric correction: GPS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and InSAR integration, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B03410, doi:10.1029/2004JB003446.
Li, Z., Muller, J.- P.,  Cross, P.,  Albert, P.,  Fischer, J.  & Bennartz, R., 2006- Assessment of the potential of MERIS near-infrared water vapour products to correct ASAR interferometric measurements. International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol. 27, No. 2, P. 349–365.
 Motagh, M., Djamour, Y., Walter, T. R., Wetzel, H., Zschau, J. and ArabiI, S., 2006- Land subsidence in Mashhad Valley, northeast Iran: Results from InSAR, Leveling and GPS, Geophysical Journal International, No. 168.
 Paperin, M., 2007- Introduction to Clouds’ structures. Ph.D. Thesis of Hamburg University..
     (Could be accessed in
 Poland, J. F., 1984- Guidebook to studies of land subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal, Unesco.
 Smith, E. K. & Weintraub, S., 1953- The constants in the equation for atmospheric refractive index at radio frequencies, Proc. IRE, 41,1035-1037.
Saastamoinen, J., 1972- Atmospheric correction for troposphere and stratosphere in radio ranging of satellites, in The Use of artificial satellites for Geodesy, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol.15, edited by S.W. Henrikson, A Mancini, and B.H. Chovitz, pp. 247-252, AGU, Washington, D. C.
 Vanicek, P. & Krakiwsky, E. 1986- Geodesy the Concepts., Elsevier science Publishers in Netherlands.
 Zebker, H. A., Rosen, P. A. and Hensley, S. , 1997- Atmospheric Effects in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Surface Deformation and Topographic Maps, J. Geophys. Res., 102(B4), p.7547-7563.