Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Ph.D., Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2 Ph.D., Exploration and Production Directorate, National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

4 Professor, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Late Cretaceous in Zagros encompasses regional tectonics and caused foreland basin to form in northeast of the Arabian Plate. Salt tectonics is also locally affected this area. One of the time periods that can better picture this tectono-sedimentary evolution is Maastrichtian. In order to investigate this evolution in the Maastrichtian time, a regional cross-section was made inthe Fars outcrops and wells. A sedimentological study and sequence stratigraphy have been accomplished along this transect. Maastrichtian deposits consist of the upper part of the Gurpi and the Tarbur formations in the studied transect. Based onsedimentological investigation, 14microfacies have been identified. This microfacies were deposited in 4microfacies belt including tidal flat, restricted and open lagoon, reef and open marine in a shelf carbonate platform. Based on sequence stratigraphic studies, 3 sedimentary sequences were identified in the studied interval. Correlation along the transect revealed that the Maastrichtian deposits occurred on the forebulge of Zagros foreland basin. It is also concluded that the fore-buldge shows a nearly smooth topography and thus accommodation space is homogeneous. Hence the thickness of the Maastrichtian deposits does not vary so much along this transect. Thickness anomaly in Namak-dehkuyeh occurs as a result of salt structure which decreased accommodation space.


Main Subjects

Abdelghany, O., 2006- Early Maastrichtian larger foraminifera of the Qahlah Formation, United Arab Emirates and Sultanate of Oman border region, Cretaceous Research, 27, 898-906.
Abramovich, S. and Keller, G., 2002- High stress upper Maastrichtian paleoenvironment: Inference from planktonic foraminifera in Tunisia. Palaeoclimatology, 178, p. 145-164.
Abyat, A., Afghah, M. and Feghhi, A., 2013- Stratigraphy and Foraminiferal biozonation of the Upper Cretaceous Sediments in Southwest Sepid Dasht, Lurestan, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal 28 (9): 1199-1207.
Adabi, M. H., 2002- Petrography and geochemical criteria for recognition of unaltered coldwater and diagenetically altered Neoproterozoic dolomite, western Tasmania, Australia: 16th Australian Geol. Conv., Australia. (abst.), p.350.
Afghah, M. and Yaghmour, S., 2014- Biostratigraphy study of Tarbur Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Tang-e Kushk and East of Sarvestan (SW of Iran). Journal of Earth Science, 25(2): 263-274.
Alavi, M., 1994- Tectonics of the Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran: New Data and Interpretation. Tectonophys. 229, 211–238.
Alavi, M., 2004- Regional stratigraphy of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt of Iran and its Proforland evolution. American Journal of Science. Vol. 304, PP. 1-20.
Alavi, M., 2007- Structures of the Zagros fold-thrust belt in Iran. Am J Sci 307:1064–1095.
Asgari Pirbalouti, B., Dehghanian, M. S. and Rasti, E., 2012- Geochemical study of Late Cretaceous Sediments in Kuh-e Dezdaran Section, in Central Zagros of Iran. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(9): 2541-2548.
Asgari Pirbalouti, B., Mirzaie, M., Jafarian, M. A., Khosrow Tehrani, K., Afghah, M., Davoudi Fard, Z., 2013- Biostratigraphy and regional aspects of the Tarbur Formation (Maastrichtian) in Central Zagros, Southwest Iran. Ravista Italian di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. 19(2), pp. 215-227.
Catuneanu, O., Galloway, W., Kendall, C., Miall, A., Posamentier, H., Strasser, A. and Tucker, M., 2011- Sequence stratigraphy: methodology and nomenclature. Newsl Stratigr 44:173–245.
Catuneanu, O., Martins, N. M. A. and Eriksson, P., 2012- Sequence stratigraphic framework and application to the Precambrian. Mar Pet Geol 33:26–33.
Dunham, R.J., 1962- Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: W. E. Ham (Ed.), Classification of Carbonate Rocks. AAPG Memoir, 1, 108-121.
El-Tabakh, M., Mory, A., S'chreiber, B. C. and Yasin, R., 2004- Anhydrite cements after dolomitization of shallow marine Silurian carbonates of the Gascoyne platform, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Sedimentary Geology, 164, 75-87.
Embry, A. F. and Klovan, J. E., 1971- A Late Devonian reef tract on northeastern Banks Island, NWT. Bull. Can. Petroleum Geol. 19:730–781.
Emery, D. and Myers, K. J., 1996- Sequence Stratigraphy: Oxford, Blackwell, Science, 297 p.
Flügel, E., 2010- Microfacies of carbonate rocks, Springer – Verlag, New York, 967p.
Hottinger, L., 1983- Processes determining the distribution of larger foraminifera in space and time: Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletin, v. 30, p. 239-253.
Hottinger, L., 1997- Shallow benthic foraminiferal assemblages as signals for depth of their deposition and their limitations. Soc. Ge´ol. Fr. Bull. 168, 491-505.
Jahani, S., Callot, J. P., Frizon De Lamotte, D., Letouzey, J. and Leturmy, P., 2007- The Salt Diapers of the Eastern Fars Province (Zagros, Iran), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp: 289-308.
Jahani, S., Callot, J. P., Letouzey, J. and Frizon De Lamotte, D., 2009- The eastern termination of the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Iran: Structures, evolution, and relationships between salt plugs, folding, and faulting; Tectonics, 28. 22p.
Jamalian, M., Adabi, M. H., Moussavi M. R., Sadeghi, A., Baghbani D. and Ariyafar B., 2010- Facies characteristic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Fahliyan Formation, Lower Cretaceous, in the Kuh-e Siah area, Zagros Basin, southern Iran. Facies 57:101–122. doi:10.1007/s10347-010-0231-3.
James, G. A. and Wynd, J. G., 1965- Stratigraphical nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium agreement area: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 49, p. 2182-2245.
Khazaei, A. R., Skelton, P. W. and Yazdi, M., 2010- Maastrichtian Rudist Fauna from Tarbur Formation (Zagros Region, SW Iran): Preliminary Observations, Turkish J. Earth Sci.), v. 19, p. 703–719.
Koop, W. J. and Stoneley, R., 1982- Subsidence history of the Middle East Zagros Basin, Permian to Recent. Phil. Trans. R. Acad. Soc., London. A 305, 149-168.
Meric, E., Ersoy, S. and Gormus M., 2001- Palaeogeographical distribution of the species of loftusia (Foraminiferida) in the Tethyan Ocean during the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous), Cret. Research, v. 22, pp. 353-364.
Miall, A. D., 1991- Stratigraphic sequences and their chronostratigraphic correlation, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. v.61, p.487-505.
Moro, A., Skelton, P. W. and Cosovic, V., 2002- Palaeoenvironmental setting of Rudists in the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Adriatic carbonate platform (Croatia), based on sequence stratigraphy: Cretaceous Research, v. 23, p. 489-50.
Mosadegh, H. and Parvaneh Nejad Shirazi, M., 2009- Algal biozonation of Fahliyan Formation (Neocomian) in the Zagros Basin, Iran. European Geoscience Union, Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU 2009-8507, 11:1
Ozcan, E., 2007- Morphometric analysis of the genus Omphalocyclus from the Late Cretaceous of Turkey: New data on its stratigraphic distribution in Mediterranean Tethys and description of two new taxa, Cretaceous Research, 28, 621-641.
Palma, R. M., Lopez-Gomez J. and Piethe, R. D., 2007- Oxfordian ramp system (La Manga Formation) in the Bardas Blancas area (Mendoza Province) Neuquen Basin, Argentina: facies and depositional sequences. Sediment Geol 195:113–134
Parham, S., Piryaie, A. R., Ghorbani, M. and Moussavi Harami, R., 2017- Paleogeographic evolution of the Maastrichtian in the eastern Fars area (Zagros, Iran), using high resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis. Carbonates and Evaporites. DOI 10.1007/s13146-017-0387-9.
Parvaneh Nejad Shirazi M,, 2008- Calcareous algae from the Cretaceous of Zagros Mountains (SW Iran). World Applide Science Journal, 4, 803–807.
Piryaei, A. R., Reijmer, J. J. G., Van Buchem, F. S. P. and Borgomano, J., 2011- Late cretaceous tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Bandar Abbas Area, Fars region, southern Iran. Journal of Petroleum Geology, Vol. 34(2), April 2011, pp 1-24.
Piryaei, A., Reijmer, J. J. G., Vanbuchem, F. S. P., Yazdimoghadam, M., Sadouni, J. and Danelian, T., 2010- The influence of Late Cretaceous tectonic processes on sedimentation patterns along the northeastern Arabian plate margin (Fars Province, SW Iran). In: Leturmy, P. and Robin, C. (Eds), Tectonic and Stratigraphic Evolution of Zagros and Makran during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ., 330.
Player, R. A., 1967- A note on the Fars Salt Plugs. Iranian Oil Operation Companies. Geological Exploration and Production Division. Unpublished Report.
Ross, D. J. and Skelton, P. W., 1993- Rudist formations of Cretaceous: a palaeoecological, sedimentological and stratigraphical review: Sedimentology Review, 1: 73-91.
Schulze, F., Kuss, J. and Marzouk, A., 2005- Platform configuration, microfacies and cyclicities of the Upper Albian to Turonian of west-central Jordan. Facies 50:505–527.
Setudehnia, A., 1972- Iran du sud-ouest. Lexique stratigraphique Internationale, III, 9b.
Setudehnia, A., 1978- The Mesozoic sequence in south-west Iran and adjacent areas. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 1, 3-43.
Sharland, P., Archer, D. and Casey, R., 2001- Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy. Blackwell, Oxford, p.320.
Stoneley, R., 1975- On the origin of ophiolite complexes in the southern Tethys region. Tectonophysics, 25, 303–322.
Tucker, M. E. and Wright, V. P., 1990- Carbonate Sedimentology, Blackwell. Sci. Pub., p.482.
Tucker, M., 1993- Carbonate diagenesis and sequence stratigraphy. In: Wright, V.P. (ed) Sedimentology review. Blackwell, Oxford, pp: 57–72.
Vail, P., 1991- The stratigraphic signatures of tectonics, eustasy and sedimentology: an overview. Springer, Berlin, pp. 617–659.
Van Buchem, F. S. P., Baghbani, D., Bulot, L. G., Caron, M., Gaumet, F., Hosseini, A., Immenhauser, A., Keyvani, F., Schroeder, R., Vedrenne, V. and Vincent, B., 2006- Aptian Organic-rich Intrashelf Basin Creation in the Dezful Embayment (Kazhdumi and Dariyan Formations, SW Iran). AAPG meeting Houston.
Van Wagoner, J. C., Posamentier, H. W., Mitchum, R. M., Vail, P. R., Sarg, J. F., Loutit, T. S. and Hardenbol, J., 1988- An overview of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions. In: Wilgus, C. K., Hastings B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., Van Wagoner, J. C., (eds) Sea level changes, an integrated approach. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogist, Special Publication, 42, 39, 45.
Wells, A., 1969- The crush zone of the Iranian Zagros Mountains and its implications. Geological Magazine, 106, 385–394.
Wilson, J. L., 1975- Carbonate Facies in Geologic History, Springer-Verlag, New York, 439p.