Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 M.Sc., School of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, School of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, School of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.

4 M. Sc., Iranian Offshore Oil Company, Tehran, Iran.


The sequence stratigraphic studies provide information regarding the distribution of different facies within sedimentary basins. With determining relationship between reservoir or non-reservoir facies and sequence stratigraphy, dissemination of reservoir zones can be achieved within sequence stratigraphic framework. In this paper, using petrographic studies correlated with Gamma-Ray deviation logs, the sedimentary environment, sequences and systems tracts of the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation were revealed in one of the Iranian oil fields. Moreover, based on the wireline logs and petrophysical analyses, the factors controlling reservoir quality including porosity, water saturation and shale volume were invistigated within sequences and their systems tracts. The study showed that in general, the highstand systems tracts have higher reservoir quality than the trangressive systems tracts. Distribution of grain-suported and nearshore facies and also absence of anhydrite facies in the upper parts of transgressive systems tracts and the lower parts of highstand systems tracts resulted in development of the best reservoir quality zones within each sequence. This type of studies is very helpful in analysing the sedimentary basins and discovering distribution of the hydrocarbon reserves, and thus it could assist in management of risk reduction in exploration and development activities.


Main Subjects

Adabi, M. H., and Asadi– Mehmandosti, E., 2009- Microfaciesand geochemistry of the ilamformationin the Tang –ERashid area, Izeh, SWiran, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. Vol. 33, pp. 267-277. DOI: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2008.01.002.
Adams, J. A., Weaver, C. E., 1985- Thorium ratios as indicator of sedimentary processes: Example of concept of geochemical facies, AAPG Bultien, Vol. 42, pp. 387- 430.
Amirshahkarami, M., Vaziri-Moghaddam, H. and Taheri, A., 2007- Sedimentary facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation at Chaman-Bolbol, Zagros Basin, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Science, Vol. 29, pp. 947-959.
Asquith, G. B., Krygowski, D., Henderson, S, and Hurley, N. 2004- Basic well log analysis, American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Catuneanu, O., 2006- Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy, (First Edition) Elsevier, Amsterdam, 375 p.
Catuneanu, O., 2018- Modelindependent sequence stratigraphy, Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 188, pp. 312-388.
Corda, L., and Brandano, M., 2003- Aphotic zone carbonate production on a Miocene ramp, Central Apennines, Italy. Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 161 (1-2), pp. 55–70.
Doveton, J., 1986- Log analysis of subsurface geology: concepts and computer methods, Wiley-Interscienc, 273p.
Dunham, R. J., 1962- Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture, in E. D. Ham, ed., Classification of carbonate rocks- Asymposium: AAPGMemoir. Vol. 1, pp. 108–121.
Ehrenberg, S. N., and  Svana, T. A., 2001- Use of spectral gamma-ray signature to interpret stratigraphic surfaces in carbonate strata: an example from the Finnmark carbonate platform (Carboniferous-Permian), Barents Sea, AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 85, pp. 295–308.
Einsele, G., 2000- Sedimentary Basins: Evolution, Facies, and Sediment Budget. Publisher Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Number of Pages 792, Edition Number 2,
Fertl, W. H., and Atlas D., 1981- Openhole CrossplotConcepts a Powerful Technique in Well Log Analysis,Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 33, pp. 535-549,
Flugel, E., 2010- Microfacies of carbonate Rocks Analysis, interpretation and Application.Springer-New York,976 p.
Fontana, S., Nader, F. H., Morad, S., Ceriani, A. and Al-Aasm, I. S., 2010- Diagenesis of the Khuff Formation (Permian–Triassic), Northern United Arab Emirates. Arab Journal Geoscience. pp. 95-111. -10.
Geel, T., 2000- Recognition of Stratigraphic Sequence in Carbonat Platform and Slop: Empirical Models Based on Microfacies Analysis of Paloogene Deposits in Southestern Spain. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, Vol. 155, pp. 211-238.
Hearst, J. R., Nelson P. H., and Paillet F. L., 2000- Well Logging for Physical Properties, Chichester ; New York : Wiley, 492 p.
Kalvoda, J., Babek, O., Devuyast, F.X., and Sevastopolo, G.S., 2011- Biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and gamma-ray spectrometry of the Tournaisian-Visean boundary interval in the Dublin Basin, Bulletin Geosci, Vol. 86, pp. 683–706.
Kamel, M. H., and Mabrouk., W. M.,  2003- Estimation of shale volume using a combination of the three porosity logs, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering , Vol. 40 (3), pp. 145-157.
Kangazian, A. and Pasandideh, M., 2016- Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation at Khaviz Anticline, Zagros Mountains, Southwest Iran. Open Journal of Geology, Vol. 6, pp. 87-102. 10.4236/ojg.2016.62009.
Kordi, M., Morad, S., Turner, B., and Salem, A.M.K., 2017- Sequence stratigraphic controls on formation of dolomite: Insights from the Carboniferous Um Bogma Formation, Sinai-Egypt, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 14920, pp. 531-539.
Kordi, M., Turner, B., and Salem, A.M.K., 2011- Linking diagenesis to sequence stratigraphy in fluvial and shallow marine sandstones: Evidence from the Cambrian–Ordovician lower sandstone unit in southwestern Sinai, Egypt, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Vol. 28, Issue 8, pp. 1554-1571.
Lorestani, M., Kangazian, A., Safari, A., Noura, M. R. and Nasehi, E., 2016- Microfacies, Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation in Masjed-I-Soleyman Oil Field, Khuzestan Provience, Southwest Iran. Open Journal of Geology, Vol. 6, pp. 840-851,
Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E. and Siever, R., 1987-Sand and sandstone, Spriger-verlag, New York, 553 p.
Poupon, A., and Leveaux, J. A., 1971- evaluation of water saturations in shaly formations, The Log Analyst, Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts, Houston, Vol. 12, pp. 81-95.
Reynolds, A. D., 1994- Sequence stratigraphy from core and wireline log data: the Viking Formation, Albian, south central Alberta, Canada, Marine Petroleum Geollogy, Vol. 11, pp. 258–282.
Rider, M. H., 2002- The gamma ray and spectral gamma ray logs. The Geological Interpretation of Well Logs, 2nd edn. Rider-French Consulting Ltd, Whittle Publishing, Rogart, pp. 71, 74p.‏
Serra, O., 1986- Fundamentals of well log interpretation, The interpretation of logging data, Developments in petroleum science, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol.15B, 684 p.
Tavakoli, V., 2017- Application of gamma deviation log (GDL) in sequence stratigraphy of carbonate strata, an example from offshore Persian Gulf, Iran, Journal of Petroleum Science andEngineering Vol. 156, pp. 868-876.
Tucker, M. E. and Wright, P., 1990- Carbonate Sedimentology. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, 482 p.
Vaziri-Moghaddam, H., Kimiagari, M. and Taheri, A., 2006- Depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation in SW Iran, Facies, Vol. 52, No.1, pp. 41-51.
Vail, P.R., Mitchum, R.M., and Thompson, S., 1977- Seismic stratigraphy and global changesof sea level, part 3: relative changes of sea level from coastal onlap. In: Payton, C.E.(Ed.), Seismic Stratigraphy–applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration: Memoir, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol.26. pp. 63-81.
Van Wagoner, J.C., Posamentier, H.W., Mitchum, R.M., Vail, P.R., Sarg, J.F., Loutit, T.S. and Hardenbol, J., 1988- An overview of the fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions, In: Wilgus, C., Hastings, B.S., Kendall, C.G., Posamentier, H.W., Ross, C.A. and Van Wagoner, J.C., (eds.), Sea level changes: an integrated approach: SEPM Spec. Pub. Vol. 42, pp. 39-46.
Vennin, E., Van Buchem, F. S. P., Joseph, P., Gaumet, F., Sonnenfeld, M., Rebelle, M., Fakhfskh Ben Jemaia, H. and Zijlstrra, H., 2003- A 3D outcrop analogue model for Ypresian nummulitic reservoirs, Jebel Qussalat, northern Tunisia, Petroleum Geoscience, Vol. 9, Issue2 , pp. 145-161.,
Wilson, J. L., 1975- Carbonate Facies in Geologic History, Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y., 471 p.
Zamanzadeh, S. M., Amini, A.H.  and Ghavidel-Syooki, M., 2009- Sequence stratigraphic controls on early-diagenetic carbonate cementationof shallow marine clastic sediments (the Devonian Zakeen Formation,southern Zagros, Iran, Geosciences Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 31 – 57. DOI: 10.1007/s12303-009-0004-6.