Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Graduate, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Oceanography, Chabahar Maritime and Marine Sciences University, Chabahar, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran


The north Makran ophiolite mélange, is located on the northern part of Makran accretionary wedge, southeast of Iran. In this study, we investigate geometry and kinematic properties of structural elements, and analyze the deformation style of the north Makran ophiolite mélange. Based on the results, at least, two stages of deformation were identified in north Makran ophiolite mélange. The first stage, which was accompanied by the development of extension structures, led to the formation of sheeted dykes in crust sequence of oceanic lithosphere. By restoration of these dykes to pre-deformation states, we assigned a SSW-NNE extensional regime that illustrates initial geometry of north Makran ophiolite mélange formed. The second stage, which was formed because of convergence in a compressional or transpressional regime, has been characterized by the development of various types of thrust and strike-slip faults, thrusting of rock units on top of each other and their duplication, and folding of sediment rocks. WNW-ESE thrust faults with 20 to 40 degrees dip toward NNE have the most important influence on current features of the north Makran ophiolite mélange, they reflect the conditions and process that the oceanic basin closed and oceanic lithosphere emplaced.


Main Subjects

Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L., Whitechurch, H., Vrielynck, B., Spakman, W., Monie, P., Meyer, B., and Wortel, R., 2011- Zagros orogeny: a subduction-dominated process. Geological Magazine 148, 692-725. https://doi:10.1017/S001675681100046.
Anderson, E.M., 1942- The dynamics of faulting. Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd.
Angelier, J., 1990- Inversion of field data in fault tectonics to obtain the regional stress-III. A new rapid direct inversion method by analytical means. Geophysical Journal International 103(2), 363-376.
Anonymous, 1972- Penrose field conference on ophiolites: Geotimes 17, 24–25. Bach, W., Erzinger, J., Alt, J., and Teagle, D., 1996, Chemistry of the lower sheeted dike complex, ODP Hole 504B: The influence of magmatic differentiation and hydrothermal alteration, in Alt, J.C., Kinoshita, H., Stokking, L., and Michael, P., Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, ODP Leg 148, Scientific Results: College Station, Texas, Ocean Drilling Program, 39–56.
Arshadi S., and Förster H., 1983- Geological structure and ophiolites of the Iranian Makran. Geodynamic Project (Geotraverse) in Iran (Final report), Geological Survey of Iran, Report no. 51, 479– 488.
Arshadi, S., Mahdavi, M. A., and Eftekhar-Nezhad, J., 1987- Geological map of Fannuj, scale 1:100000. Geological Survey of Iran.
Bayer, R., Chery, J., Tatar, M., Vernant, P., Abbassi, M., Masson, F., Nilforoushan, E., Doerflinger, E., Regard, V., and Bellier, O., 2006-Active deformation in Zagros-Makran transition zone inferred from GPS measurements. Geophysical Journal International 165, 373-381.
Berberian, M., and King, G.C.P., 1981- Towards a Paleo-Geography and Tectonic Evolution of Iran-Reply. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18, 1764-1766.
Burg, J.-P., Dolati, A., Bernoulli, D., and Smit, J., 2013- Structural Style of the Makran Tertiary accretionary comples in SE-Iran. In: Al Hosani, K., F. Roure, R. Ellison and S. Lokier (eds.) Frontiers in Earth Sciences, 239 - 259.
Burg, J.P., 2018- Geology of the onshore Makran accretionary wedge: Synthesis and tectonic interpretation. Earth-Science Reviews 185, 1210-1231.
Charity M., Phillips-Lander, C.M., and Dilek, Y., 2009- Structural architecture of the sheeted dike complex and extensional tectonics of the Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite, Albania. Lithos, 108(1-4), pp.192-206.
Cunningham, W.D., and Mann, P., 2007- Tectonics of strike-slip restraining and releasing bends. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 290, 1-12.
Dilek, Y., 2003- Ophiolite concept and its evolution, in Dilek, Y., and Newcomb, S., eds., Ophiolite Concept and the Evolution of Geological Thought: Geological Society of America Special Paper 373, 1–16. DOI: 10.1130/0-8137-2373-6.1.
DeMets, C., Gordon, R. G., and Argus, D. F., 2010- Geologically current plate motions. Geophysical Journal International 181, 1-80. https://doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04491.x.
Dolati, A., 2010- Stratigraphy, structural geology and low-temperature thermochronolgy across the Makranaccretionary wedge in Iran. Ph.D. thesis, Swiss Institute of Technology (ETH).165p.
Dolati, A., Burg, J. P., 2013- Preliminary fault analysis and paleostress evolution in the Makran Fold-and-Thrust Belt in Iran. In Lithosphere dynamics and sedimentary basins: The Arabian Plate and analogues (pp. 261-277). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-30609-9_13.
Esmaeili, R., Wenjiao, X., Ebrahimi, M., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Abd El-Rahman, Y., Han, Ch., Wan, B., Ao, S., Song, D., Shahabi, Sh., and Aouizerat, A., 2019- Makran ophiolitic basalts (SE Iran) record Late Cretaceous Neotethys plume-ridge interaction, International Geology Review, doi: 10.1080/00206814.2019.1658232.
Farhoudi, G., and Karig, D. E., 1977- Makran of Iran and Pakistan as an active arc system. Geology 5, 664-668.
Frohlich, C., 1992- Triangle diagrams: ternary graphs to display similarity and diversity of earthquake focal mechanisms, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 75, 193-198.
Haghipour, N., Burg, J.P., Kober, F., Zeilinger, G., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., and Faridi, M., 2012- Rate of crustal shortening and non-Coulomb behaviour of an active accretionary wedge: The folded fluvial terraces in Makran (SE, Iran). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 355, 187-198.
Hunziker, D., 2014- Magmatic and metamorphic history of the North Makran Ophiolites and Blueschists (SE Iran): Influence of Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in blueschist facies minerals on geothermobarometric calculations. Ph.D. thesis, Swiss Institute of Technology (ETH).360p.
Hunziker, D., Burg, J.P., Bouilhol, P., Von Quadt, A., 2015- Jurassic rifting at the Eurasian Tethys margin: Geochemical and geochronological constraints from granitoids of North Makran, southeastern Iran. Tectonics 34, 571–593.
Hunziker, D., Burg, J.P., Moulas, E., Reusser, E., and Omrani, J., 2017- Formation and preservation of fresh lawsonite: Geothermobarometry of the north Makran blueschists, southeast Iran. Metamorphic Geology 65, 1–25.
Lander, Ph., Charity, M., Dilek, Y., 2009- Structural architecture of the sheeted dike complex and extensional tectonics of the Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite, Albania. Lithos 108(1-4), 192-206. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2008.09.014.
Masson, L., Alexander, J. C., and Robertson, A.H.F., 2014- Construction of a sheeted dyke complex: Evidence from the northern margin of the Troodos ophiolite and its southern margin adjacent to the Arakapas fault zone. Ofioliti 39(1), 1-30. DOI: 10.4454/ofioliti.v39i1.426.
McCall, G. J. H., 2002- A summary of the geology of the Iranian Makran. Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region 195, 147-204.
McCall, G.J.H., Eftekhar-Nezhad, J., Samimi-Namin, M., and Arshadi, S., 1985- Explanatory Text of the Fannuj Quadrangle Map 1:250,000. In: McCall, G.J.H. (Ed.). Tehran, Ministry of Mines and Metals, Geological Survey of Iran.
McCall, G. J. H., 1997- The geotectonic history of the Makran and adjacent areas of southern Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 15, 517-531.
McCall, G. J. H., and Kidd, R. G. W., 1982- The Makran, southeastern Iran; the anatomy of a convergent plate margin active from Cretaceous to present. In: Jeremy, K. L. (ed.) Trench-Fore-arc geology; sedimentation and tectonics on modern and ancient active plate margins, conference. London, United Kingdom, Geological Society of London, 387-397.
Moien Vaziri, H., 1985- Volcanisme Tértiaire ET Quatérnaire en Iran. Thèse d’ Etat, Paris-Sud Orsay, France, p 290.
Morgan, K. H., and McCall, G. J. H., Huber, H., 1987(a)- Geological map of Ramak, scale 1:100000. Geological Survey of Iran.
Morgan, K. H., McCall, G. J. H., Huber, H., 1987(b). Geological map of Remeshk, scale 1:100000. Geological Survey of Iran.
Moslempour, M.E., Khalatbari Jafari, M., Ghaderi, M., Yousefi, H., and Shahidi, S., 2015- Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic of the extrusive sequence of Fannuj-Maskutan ophiolite, southeastern Iran. Journal Geological Society of India 85, 604-618.
Moslempour, M.E., Khalatbari Jafari, M., Morishita, T., and Biabangard, H., 2017- Petrogenesis of mantle peridotites from the South of Jazmourian, Makran accretionary prism, Iran. Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences 9, 1-16. DOI:10.1080/00206814.2020.1753118.
Mouthereau, F., Lacombe, O., and Verges, J., 2012- Building the Zagros collisional orogen: Timing, strain distribution and the dynamics of Arabia/Eurasia plate convergence. Tectonophysics 532, 27-60.
Robinson, P.T., Malpas, J., Dilek, Y., and Zhou, M.F., 2008- The significance of sheeted dike complexes in ophiolites. GSA Today, 18(11), pp.4-10. DOI: 10.1130/GSATG22A.1.
Sepidbar, F., Lucci, F., Biabangard, H., Zaki Khedr, M., and Jiantang, P., 2020- Geochemistry and tectonic significance of the Fannuj-Maskutan SSZ-type ophiolite (Inner Makran, SE Iran), International Geology Review.
Vernant, P., Nilforoushan, F., Hatzfeld, D., Abbassi, M., Vigny, C., Masson, F., Nankali, H., Martinod, J., Ashtiani, M., Bayer, R., Tavakoli, F., and Chéry, J., 2004- Contemporary Crustal Deformation and Plate Kinematics in Middle East Constrained by GPS Measurements in Iran and Northern Oman. Geophysical Journal International 157, 381-398.
Vigny, C., Huchon, P., Ruegg, J. C., Khanbari, K., and Asfaw, L. M., 2006- Confirmation of Arabia plate slow motion by new GPS data in Yemen. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 111(B2).