Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

3 M.Sc., Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran


The Upper Cretaceous succession (UCS) of the north Sanandaj-Sirjan zone consists of five units. The units are 2000 m thick, including shale, sandstone, limestone, intrafomational conglomerate with interbedded basaltic- andesitic lava. This succession is unconformably underlain by Lower Cretaceous and overlain by Paleocene conglomerates. The geochemistry of the samples represents ratios of Al2O3/TiO2 (18-22), La/LuCN (5.43-24.4), La/Sc (0.51-2.53), Th/Sc (0.42-0.68), LREE/HREE (Nd/ErCN > 5), and negative anomalies of Eu/Eu* (0.26-0.89) and Nb/Nb* (0.14-0.82). These characteristics indicate that the samples are immature, first-order sediments, and were eroded from intermediate to acidic arcs in the subduction zone. The volcanic rocks were formed during the intracrustal melting of an altered oceanic slab at high pressures in the garnet-amphibolite facies. The geochemical compositions and vertical lithofacies stacking patterns of the UCS imply that the depositional environment has changed during sedimentation from a trench to trench slope and forearc basins arising from continent-ward migration of the magmatic arc. The activities of Late Cretaceous volcanism resulted in the upwelling of anoxic water, demise of planktonic, and formed pyrite in the deposits. Samples on the Th/Yb-Ta/Yb diagram fall in the ACM and WPVZ fields, indicating tectonic evolution from low-gradient subduction to extensional volcanic conditions.


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