Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

2 School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences-Wuhan, Wuhan, China


The Gano bauxite deposit is located 90 km northeast of Semnan city in the eastern Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. The bauxite ores occur as stratiform discrete lenses with a length of 6 km and thickness of 2–20 m along the contact between carbonates of the Elika Formation and shale, sandstone, siltstone, and coal of the Shemshak Formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the bauxite ores consist of diaspore, hematite, kaolinite, chlorite, anatase, illite, zunyite, goethite, quartz, and dolomite minerals. Fluctuations of the groundwater table level, acidic atmospheric waters, and an increase in pH of the weathering solutions close to carbonate bedrocks played an important role in the concentration of Fe-poor ores in the upper parts and Fe-rich ores in the lower parts of the studied profile. An increase in oxidation, the possible presentence of secondary phosphate minerals, fluctuations of the groundwater table level, and the role of carbonate bedrock as an active buffer played an important role in the extent of Ce anomaly in the ores (0.79–12.25). The pH variations of weathering solutions, fluctuations of the groundwater table level, the role of carbonate bedrock as a geochemical barrier, and simultaneous precipitation of Fe-bearing minerals and preferential scavenging of LREE(La–Eu) by hematite played an important role in the distribution and fractionation of rare earth elements in the bauxite ores. According to geochemical considerations (Eu/Eu* vs. TiO2/Al2O3 and Sm/Nd bivariate diagrams), the Gano bauxite deposit probably derived from the weathering of intermediate igneous rocks.


Main Subjects

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