Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Tarbiat Modares University

2 Associate Professor, Tarbiat Modares University

3 Research Associate, California Institute of Technology (Caltech)


Sulfur isotope data on pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite in the A, B and D type veinlets in porphyry systems of the Meiduk cluster, located in northwestern part of the Kerman copper belt, show that these systems have near zero δ34S values. Sulfur isotope composition for the Chah-Firouzeh and Iju deposits and Serenu, God-e-Kolvari and Kader prospects is from -1.4 to +2.5 (average +0.31), -1.3 to +1.1 (average +0.07), +0.1 to +2.4 (average +0.87), -1.5 to +0.2 (average -0.1) and -4.1 to +1 (average -1.04), respectively. These results suggest a magmatic source for sulfur. Also, limited range of isotopic variations and analogous isotopic composition for the three types of veinlets reveals that with evolution of the hydrothermal system, no significant changes occurred in the primary and relatively homogenous source of sulfur. Comparison between the data for the Meiduk cluster with available data from other deposits in middle and southern parts of the Kerman belt suggested that in porphyry systems of the northwestern, and to some extent southern parts, of the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc, sulfur was provided by a mafic magma originated from metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) which was affected by assimilation with continental crust; while in the southern parts, processes related to subduction and fluids from seawater and associated sediments had a major role in their sulfur isotope composition.


Main Subjects

Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L. and Mouthereau, F., 2005- Convergence history across Zagros (Iran): constraints from collisional and earlier deformation. International Journal of Earth Sciences 94, 401-419.
Aghazadeh, M., Hou, Z., Badrzadeh, Z. and Zhou, L., 2015- Temporal–spatial distribution and tectonic setting of porphyry copper deposits in Iran: Constraints from zircon U–Pb and molybdenite Re–Os geochronology. Ore Geology Reviews 70, 385-406.
Ahmad, T. and Posht Kuhi, M., 1993- Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Urumiah–Dokhtar volcanic belt around Nain and Rafsanjan area; a preliminary study: treatise on the geology of Iran. Iranian Ministry of Mines and Metals p. 90.
Alavi, M., 1991- Sedimentary and structural characteristics of the Paleo-Tethys remnants in northeastern Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 103, 983-992.
Allègre, C. J., 2008- Isotope Geology. Cambridge University Press, New York 1-534.
Allen, M. B., Jackson, J. and Walker, R., 2004- Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics 23, TC2008.
Asadi, S., Moore, F. and Zarasvandi, A., 2014- Discriminating productive and barren porphyry copper deposits in the southeastern part of the central Iranian volcano-plutonic belt, Kerman region, Iran: A review. Earth-Sci Reviews 138, 25-46.
Atapour, H. and Aftabi, A., 2007- The geochemistry of gossans associated with Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran: Implications for exploration and the environment. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 93, 47-65.
Beaudoin, G. and Therrien P., 2004- The web stable isotope fractionation calculator. Handbook of stable isotope analytical techniques, Volume-I. De Groot, P.A.: Elsevier; p. 1045-1047.
Beaudoin, G. and Therrien, P., 2009- The updated web stable isotope fractionation calculator. Handbook of stable isotope analytical techniques, Volume-II. De Groot, P.A., Elsevier; p. 1120-1122.
Berberian, F. and Muir, I. D., Pankhurst, R. J. and Berberian, M., 1982- Late Cretaceous and early Miocene Andean-type plutonic activity in northern Makran and Central Iran. Journal of the Geologicasl Society 139, 605-614.
Berberian, M. and King, G. C.,P., 1981- Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18, 210-265.
Cannell, J., Cooke, D. R., Walshe, J. L. and Stein, H., 2008- Geology, mineralization, alteration and structural evolution of El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit—A reply. Economic Geology 102, 1171-1180.
Dercourt, J., Zonenshain, L. P., Ricou, L. E., Kazmin, V. G., Le Pichon, X., Knipper, A. L., Grandjacquet, C., Sbortshikov, I. M., Geyssant, J., Lepvrier, C., Pechersky, D. H., Boulin, J., Sibuet, J. C., Savostin, L. A., Sorokhtin, O., Westphal, M., Bazhenov, M. L., Lauer, J. P. and Biju-Duval, B., 1986- Evolution of the Tethys Geological evolution of the tethys belt from the atlantic to the pamirs since the LIAS. Tectonophysics. 123, 2, 315-41.
Deyell, C. L., 2005- Sulfur isotope zonation at the Mt Polley alkalic porphyry Cu-Au deposit, British Columbia, Canada. In: Mao J, Bierlein FP, editors. Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge: Proceedings of the Eighth Biennial SGA Meeting Beijing, China, 18–21 August 2005. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; p. 373-376.
Dimitrijevic, M. D., 1973- Geology of Kerman region. Geological Survey of Iran p. 334.
Field, C. W., Zhang, L., Dilles, J. H., Rye, R. O. and Reed, M. H., 2005- Sulfur and oxygen isotopic record in sulfate and sulfide minerals of early, deep, pre-Main Stage porphyry Cu–Mo and late Main Stage base-metal mineral deposits, Butte district, Montana. Chem Geol. 215, 61-93.
Förster, H., 1978- Mesozoic–Cenozoic metallogenesis in Iran. J Geol Soc. 135, 443.
Giuliani, A., Fiorentini, M. L., Martin, L. A. J., Farquhar, J., Phillips, D., Griffin, W. L. and LaFlamme, C., 2016- Sulfur isotope composition of metasomatised mantle xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa): Contribution from subducted sediments and the effect of sulfide alteration on S isotope systematics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 445, 114-124.
Gustafson, L. B. and Hunt, J. P., 1975- The porphyry copper deposit at El Salvador, Chile. Economic Geology 70, 857-912.
Hassanzadeh, J., 1993- Metallogenic and tectono-magmatic events in the SE sector of the Cenozoic active continental margin of Iran (Shahr e Babak area, Kerman province). USA: University of California, Los Angeles, Ph.D. thesis, 204 p.
Heithersay, P. S. and Walshe, J. L., 1995- Endeavour 26 North; a porphyry copper-gold deposit in the Late Ordovician, shoshonitic Goonumbla volcanic complex, New South Wales, Australia. Econ Geol. 90, 1506-1532.
Hoefs, J., 2015- Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Springer.
Ionov, D. A., Hoefs, J., Wedepohl, K. H. and Wiechert, U., 1992- Content and isotopic composition of sulphur in ultramafic xenoliths from central Asia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 111, 269-286.
Jensen, M. L., 1957- Sulfur isotopes and mineral paragenesis. Economic Geology 52, 269-281.
John, D. A., Ayuso, R. A., Barton, M. D., Blakely, R. J., Bodnar, R. J., Dilles, J. H., Gray, F., Graybeal, F. T., Mars, J. C., McPhee, D. K., Seal, R. R., Taylor, R. D. and Vikre, P. G., 2010- Porphyry copper deposit model, Chap. B of Mineral deposit models for resource assessment: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5070–B; p. 169.
Li, Y. and Liu J., 2006- Calculation of sulfur isotope fractionation in sulfides. Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 70, 1789-1795.
McInnes, B. I. A., Evans, N. J., Belousova, E., Griffin, W. T. and Andrew, R. L., 2003- Timing of mineralization and exhumation processes at the Sar Cheshmeh and Meiduk porphyry Cu deposits, Kerman Belt, Iran. 7th Biennial SGA Meeting, Athens, Millpress Rotterdam. 1197-1200.
Mirnejad, H., Mathur, R., Hassanzadeh, J., Shafie, B. and Nourali, S., 2013- Linking Cu mineralization to host porphyry emplacement: Re-Os ages of molybdenites versus U-Pb ages of zircons and sulfur isotope compositions of pyrite and chalcopyrite from the iju and sarkuh porphyry deposits in southeast Iran. Economic Geology 108, 861-870.
Mohajjel, M., Fergusson, C. L. and Sahandi, M. R., 2003- Cretaceous–Tertiary convergence and continental collision, Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone, western Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21, 397-412.
Mohammaddoost, H., Ghaderi, M., Kumar, T. V., Hassanzadeh, J., Alirezaei, S., Stein, H. J. and Babu, E. V. S. S. K.., 2017- Zircon U–Pb and molybdenite Re–Os geochronology and sulfur isotope composition of vein materials in the Chah-Firouzeh porphyry copper deposit, Kerman Cenozoic Magmatic Assemblage, southeastern Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 88, 384-399.
Ohmoto, H. and Rye, R. O., 1979- Isotope of sulfur and carbon. In: Barnes HL, editor. Geochemestry of Hydrothermal deposits. 2 ed. New York: Wiley; p. 509-567.
Parsapoor, A., Dilles, J. H., Khalili, M., Mackizadeh, M. A. and Maghami, M., 2014- Stable isotope record of hydrothermal sulfate, sulfide and silicate minerals in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit in Kerman, southeastern Iran: Implications for petrogenesis and exploration. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 143, 103-115.
Parsapoor, A., Khalili, M., Tepley, F. and Maghami, M., 2015- Mineral chemistry and isotopic composition of magmatic, re-equilibrated and hydrothermal biotites from Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit, Kerman (southeast of Iran). Ore Geology Reviews 66, 200-218.
Richards, J. P., 2009- Postsubduction porphyry Cu-Au and epithermal Au deposits: Products of remelting of subduction-modified lithosphere. Geology 37, 247.
Rye, R. O., 1993- The evolution of magmatic fluids in the epithermal environment; the stable isotope perspective. Economic Geology 88, 733-752.
Rye, R. O., 2005- A review of the stable-isotope geochemistry of sulfate minerals in selected igneous environments and related hydrothermal systems. Chemical Geology 21, 36-5.
Rye, R. O., Bethke, P. M. and Wasserman, M. D., 1992- The stable isotope geochemistry of acid sulfate alteration. Economic Geology 87, 225-262.
Sasaki, A. and Ishihara, S., 1979- Sulfur isotopic composition of the magnetite-series and ilmenite-series granitoids in Japan. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 68, 107-115.
Sasaki, A., Ulriksen, C. E., Sato, K. and Ishihara S., 1984- Sulfur isotope reconnaissance of porphyry copper and manto-type deposits in Chile and the Philippines. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan 35, 615-622.
Seedorff, E., Dilles, J. H., Proffett, J. M., Einaudi, M. T., Zurcher, L., Stavast, W. J. A., Johnson, D. A. and Barton, M. D., 2005- Porphyry deposits: Characteristics and origin of hypogene features. Society of Economic Geologists, Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume, 1905–2005, 251-298.
Shafiei, B., 2008- Transition from Paleogene normal calc-alkaline to Neogene adakitic-like plutonism. Journal of Sciences of the Islamic Republic of Iran 19, 67-84.
Shafiei, B., 2010- Lead isotope signatures of the igneous rocks and porphyry copper deposits from the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc (SE Iran), and their magmatic-metallogenetic implications. Ore Geology Reviews 38, 27-36.
Shafiei, B., Haschke, M. and Shahabpour, J., 2009- Recycling of orogenic arc crust triggers porphyry Cu mineralization in Kerman Cenozoic arc rocks, southeastern Iran. Mineralium Deposita 44, 265-283.
Shanks, W., 2014- Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits. In: HDHK T, editor. Treatise on Geochemistry. 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier; p. 59-85.
Sillitoe, R. H., 2010- Porphyry copper systems. Economic Geology 105, 3-41.
Stocklin, J., 1968- Structural history and tectonics of Iran: a review. AAPG Bulletin. 52, 1229.
Taghipour, N., Aftabi, A. and Mathur, R., 2008- Geology and Re-Os geochronology of mineralization of the Miduk porphyry copper deposit, Iran. Resource Geology 58, 143-160.
Vry, V. H., Wilkinson, J. J., Seguel, J. and Millán, J., 2010- Multistage intrusion, brecciation, and veining at El Teniente, Chile: evolution of a nested porphyry system. Economic Geology 105, 119-153.
Wilson, A. J., Cooke, D. R., Harper, B. J. and Deyell, C. L., 2007- Sulfur isotopic zonation in the Cadia district, southeastern Australia: exploration significance and implications for the genesis of alkalic porphyry gold–copper deposits. Mineralium Deposita 42, 465-487.
Wilson, A. J., Cooke, D. R. and Harper, B. L., 2003- The Ridgeway gold-copper deposit: a high-grade alkalic porphyry deposit in the Lachlan Fold Belt, New South Wales, Australia. Economic Geology 98, 1637-1666.
Wolfe, R. C. and Cooke, D. R., 2011- Geology of the Didipio region and genesis of the Dinkidi alkalic porphyry Cu-Au deposit and related pegmatites, northern Luzon, Philippines. Economic Geology 106, 1279-1315