Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Geology, National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC), Ahwaz, Iran.


The Fahliyan Formation with the age of Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian-Hauterivian) were studied for microfacies analysis, diagenesis and original carbonate mineralogy in the type section at Fahliyan Anticline and subsurface section in well number 55 of Gachsaran Oil Field. Petrographic studies led to the recognition of 10 microfacies that were deposited in four facies belts: tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and open marine. The observed facies patterns indicated a carbonate rimmed-shelf depositional environment. Recognition of different type of cements shows that the Fahliyan Formation has mostly undergone meteroric diagenesis. Major and minor elements and carbon and oxygen isotope values indicate that aragonite was the original carbonate mineralogy in the Fahliyan Formation, and suggests that alteration occurred in a closed diagenetic system, with low water/rock interaction.


Adabi, M. H. & Asadi Mehmandosti, E., 2008- Microfacies and geochemistry of the Ilam Formation in the Tang-E Rashid area, Izeh, S.W. Iran, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 33:267-277.
Adabi, M. H. & Rao, C. P., 1991- Petrographic and geochemical evidence for original aragonitic mineralogy of Upper Jurassic carbonate (Mozduran Formation), Sarakhs area, Iran: Sedimentary Geology, 72:253-267.
Adabi, M. H. & Rao, C. P., 1996- Petrographic, elemental and isotopic criteria for the recognition of carbonate mineralogy and climates during the Jurassic (e.g., from Iran and England): 13th Geological Convension, Australia, (Abstract), p. 6.
Adabi, M. H., 1996- Sedimentology and geochemistry of carbonates from Iran and Tasmania, Ph. D. thesis (Unpublished). University of Tasmania. Australia. 470 p.
Amodio, S., 2006- Foraminifera diversity changes and paleoenvironmental analysis:the Lower Cretaceous shallow-water carbonates of San Lorenzello, Campanian Apennines, southern Italy, Facies, 52:53-67.
Anderson, T. F. & Arthur, M. A., 1983- Stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon and their application to sedimentologic and paleoenviromental problems. in: Stable isotope in sedimentary geology, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Short Course, 10:1-151.
Bachmann, M. & Hirsch, F., 2006- Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform of the eastern Levant (Galilee and the Golan Heights): stratigraphy and second-order sea-level change, Cretaceous Research, 27:487-512.
Bates, N. R. & Brand, U., 1990- Secular variation of calcium carbonate mineralogy; an evaluation of ooid and micrite chemistries, Geologische Rundschau, 79:27-46.
Bathurst, R. G. C., 1975- Carbonate Sediments and their Diagenesis, Developments in Sedimentology, v. 12, Elsevier, Amsterdam. 658 p.
Brand, U. & Veizer, J., 1980- Chemical diagenesis of multicomponent carbonate system, II: stable isotopes, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 51:987-997.
Casey, R. E. P., 1993- Radiolaria. in: Lipps, J. H., (ed) Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, p. 249-288.
Choquette, P. W. & Pray, L., 1970- Geologic nomenclature and classification of porosity in sedimentary carbonates, American Association of Petroleum Geologist Bulletin, 54:207-250.
Dickson, J. A. D., 1965- A modified staining technique for carbonate in thin section, Nature, 205:587.
Dunham, R. J., 1962- Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture, American Association of Petroleum Geologist, Memoir, 1:108-121.
Flügel, E., 2004- Microfacies analysis of limestone: Analysis, interpretation and application, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 976 p.
GroÖcke, D. R., Price, G. D., Rufell, A. H., Mutterlose, J. & Baraboshkin, E., 2003- Isotopic evidence for Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous climate change, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 202:97-118.
James, G. A. & Wynd, J. G., 1965- Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement Area, American Association of Petroleum Geologist, Bulletin, 49:2182-2245.
Jenkyns, H. C., Jones, C. E., GroÖcke, R., Hesselbo, S. & Parkinson, D. N., 2002- Chemostratigraphy of the Jurassic System: applications, limitations and implications for palaeoceanography, Journal of Geological Society of London, 159:351–378.
Kelth, L. M. & Weber, J. N., 1964- Carbone and oxygen isotopic composition of limestones and fossils, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 28:1787-1816.
Longman, M. W., 1980- Carbonate diagenetic textures from nearsurface diagenetic environments, American Association of Petroleum Geologist, Bulletin, 64:461-487.
Milliman, J. D. & Müller, J., 1977- Characteristics and genesis of shallow-water and deep-sea limestones. in: Anderen, N.R., & Malahoff, A., (eds.), The fate of fossil fuel CO2 in the oceans. New York (Plenum), p. 655-672.
Milliman, J. D., 1974- Marine Carbonates Recent Sedimentary Carbonates, Part 1, Speringer-Verlag, Berlin, 375 p.
Moore, C. H., 1989- Carbonate Diagenesis and Porosity, Development in Sedimentology, 46:338 p.
Morse, J. W. & Mackenzie, F. T., 1990- Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonates, Development in Sedimentology, Amsterdam (Elsevier), 48:707 p.
Playa, E. & Gimeno, D., 2006- Evaporite deposition and coeval volcanism in the Fortuna Basin (Neogene, Murcia, Spain), Sedimentary Geology, 188:205–218.
Rao, C. P. & Adabi, M. H., 1992- Carbonate minerals, major and minor elements and oxygen and carbon isotopes and their variation with water depth in cool, temperate carbonates, western Tasmania, Australia, Marine Geology, 103:249-272.
Rao, C. P. & Amini, Z. Z., 1995- Faunal relationship to grain-size, mineralogy and geochemistry in recent temperate shelf carbonate, western Tasmania, Australia, Carbonates and Evaporites, 10:114-123.
Rao, C. P. & Nelson, C. S., 1992- Oxygen and carbon isotope fields for temperate shelf carbonates from Tasmania and New Zealand, Marine Geology, 103:273-286.
Rao, C. P. & Wang, B., 1990- Oxygen and carbonate isotope composition of Gordon Group carbonates (Ordovician) Florentine Valley, Tasmania. Australia, Journal Earth–Science Reviews, 37:305-316.
Rao, C. P., 1990- Geochemical characteristics of cool-temperate carbonates, Tasmania, Australia, Carbonates and Evaporites, 5:209-221.
Rao, C. P., 1991- Geochemical differences between subtropical (Ordovician), cool-temperate (recent and Pleistocene) and subpolar carbonates, Tasmania, Australia, Carbonates and Evaporites, 6:83-106.
Rao, C. P., 1996- Modern Carbonates, Tropical, Temperate, Polar. Introduction to Sedimentology and Geochemistry, Hobart (Tasmania).206 p.
Salehi, M. A., Adabi, M. H., Ghobishavi, A. & Ghalavand, H., 2007-  Recostruction of sedimentary environment and petrographic and geochemical evidence of aragonite original mineralogy of Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks (Fahliyan Formation) in the Zagros sedimentary basin, Iran. 13th Bathurst meeting, Norwich, UK. (Abstract).
Samankassou, E., Tresch, J. & Strasser, A., 2005- Origin of peloids in Early Cretaceous deposits, Dorset, South England, Facies, 51:264–273.
Schlagintweit, F. & Gawlick, H. J., 2007- Analysis of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous algal debris-facies of the Plassen carbonate platform in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Germany, Austria) and in the Kurbnesh area of the Mirdita zone (Albania): a tool to reconstruct tectonics and palaeogeography of eroded platforms, Facies, 53:209–227.
Sepehr, M. & Cosgrove, J. W., 2004- Structural framework of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 21:829-843.
Tucker, M. E. & Wright, V. P., 1990- Carbonate Sedimentology, Oxford (Blackwell), 482 p.
Tucker, M. E., 2001- Sedimentary Petrology, Oxford (Blackwell), 262 p.
Vandeginste, V., Swennen, R., Gleeson, S. A., Ellam, R. M., Osadetz, K. & Roure, F., 2006- Development of secondary porosity in the Fairholme carbonate complex (southwest Alberta, Canada), Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 89:394–397.
Veizer, J., Ala, D., Azmy, K., Bruckschen, P., Buhl, D., Bruhn, F., Carden, G. A. F., Diener, A., Ebneth, S., Goddris, Y., Jasper, T., Korte, C., Pawellek, F., Podlaha, O. G. & Strauss, H., 1999- 87Sr/86Sr, δ 13C and δ 18O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater, Chemical Geology, 161:59-88.
Westphal, H., 2006- Limestone–marl alternations as environmental archives and the role of early diagenesis: a critical review, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 95:947-961.
Wilson, J. L., 1975- Carbonate Facies in Geologic History, New York (Springer), 471 p.