Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Ph.D., Faculty of Earth Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Earth Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Faculty of Earth Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Geology, College of Science, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran


Tehran- Karaj water conveyance tunnel (part 1), 16 kilometers in length, in the Karaj formation was excavated in order to convey the water from the Amir-Kabir dam to the Tehran refinery plant. The hydrogeology studies of the Karaj tunnel were done to discover the affecting parameters on the groundwater inflow into the tunnel. Groundwater inflow was estimated by means of empirical and analytical methods. Daily measurements of inflow rate show that there are some differences between the calculated and the observed inflow value. In this research, based on the comparison between the observed and calculated groundwater inflow, some relations have been derived for similar hydrogeological conditions. In many hydrogeological conditions, the analytical equations are supervised on empirical formula. According to this research, addition to permeability and water head; geological structure, Precipitation and bedding dip have a significant effect in water inflow into tunnels. Also, most of groundwater inflow along the Karaj tunnel is largely related to the main geological features, such as folds, faults, dykes and open fractures and inflow is correlated with precipitation.


Ameli, A., 2006- Estimation of water inflow into a tunnel during construction, Tunnelling Association of Canada Proceedings.
Brassington, F. C., 1986- the inter-relationship between changes in groundwater conditions and engineering construction, Quarterly Journals of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology.
Cesano, D., Bagtzoglou, A. C. and Olofsson, B., 2003- Quantifying fractured rock hydraulic heterogeneity and groundwater inflow prediction in underground excavations: the heterogeneity index, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 18 2003, 19–34.
Chiocchini, U. and Castaldi, F., 2011- The impact of groundwater on the excavation of tunnels in two different hydrogeological settings in central Italy, Hydrogeology Journal 2011, 19: 651–669.
Coli, N., Pranzini, G., Alfi, A. and Boerio, V., 2008- Evaluation of Rock-Mass Permeability Tensor and Prediction of Tunnel Inflows By Means Of Geostructural Surveys and Finite Element, Engineering Geology, Engineering Geology, 02812; No of Pages 11.
Custodio, E. and Llamas, M. G., 2005- Idrologia sotterranea, Dario Flaccovio Editore.
Dehghan, A. N., Goshtasbi, K., Ahangari, K. and Jin, Y., 2015- Mechanism of fracture initiation and propagation using a tri-axial hydraulic fracturing test system in naturally fractured reservoirs, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering.
Demattis, A., Kalamaras, G. and Eusebio, A., 2005- A system approach for evaluating spring drawdown due to tunneling, Progress in tunneling, Milan, Italy.
El Tani, M., 2003- Circular tunnel in a semi-infinite aquifer, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 18, 49–55.
Fernandez, G. and Moon, J., 2010- Excavation-induced hydraulic conductivity reduction around a tunnel – Part 2: Verification of proposed method using numerical modeling, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Volume 25, Issue 5, September 2010, Pages 567-574.
Font-Capo, J., 2012- Interaction between groundwater and TBM Tunnel Boring Machine, excavated tunnels, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geotechnical engineering and Geosciences, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, UPC-BarcelonaTech.
Freeze, R. A., and Cherry, J. A., 1979- Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey.
Frough, O., Torabi, S. R. and Tajik, M., 2012- Evaluation of TBM utilization using rock mass rating system: a case study of Karaj-Tehran water conveyance tunnel, Journal of mining and environmental, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, 89-98.
Gattinoni, P. and Scesi, L., 2010- An analytical equation for tunnel inflow assessment: application to sedimentary rock masses. Hydrogeology journal. 15, 201-211.
Goodman, R. E., Moye, D. G., Van Schalkwyk, A. and Javandel, I., 1965- Ground water inflows during tunnel driving. Bull. Ass. Eng. Geologists 2, 35–56.
Hassanpour, J. and Rostami, J., 2010- Predicting TBM performance in second lot of Karaj Water Conveyance Tunnel KWCT,, Rock Engineering in Difficult Ground Conditions – Soft Rocks and Karst – Vrkljan ed,©2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
Heuer, R., 2001- Estimating Rock tunnel water inflow. Geotechnical consulting McHenry.
Illman, W. A., Neuman, S. P., Vesselinov, V. and Guzman, A. G., 2003 Strong evidence for permeability scale effect in fractured rock, Groundwater Engineering – Recent Advances, Kono, Nishigaki & Komatsu eds,, Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, ISBN 90 5809 395 9.
Kaneshiro, J. and Schmidt, B., 1995- Fracture and shatter zone inflow into hard rock tunnels Case histories, Balkema, Rotterdam. Permission to Distribute - American Rock Mechanics Association.
Karlsrud, K., 2001- Water control when tunneling under urban areas in the Olso region. NFF publication No. 12, 4, 27–33, NFF.
Kolymbas, D. and Wagner, P., 2007- Groundwater ingress to tunnels – The exact analytical solution, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 23-27.
Lachassagne, P., Marechal, J., Bienfait, P. and Lamotte, C., 2015- Computing the Water Inflows Discharge and Assessing the Impacts of Tunnels Drilled in Hard Rocks: The A89 France, Motorway Case Study, Engineering Geology for Society and Territory, volume 3.Lei, S., 1999, an analytical solution for steady flow into a tunnel. Ground Water 37, 23–26.
Lee, I. M. and Nam, S. W., 2001- the study of seepage forces acting on the tunnel lining and tunnel face in shallow tunnels, Tunneling and Underground Space Technology 16 (2001). 31_40.
Li, D., Lia, X., Lib, C., Huanga, B., Gongaand, F. and Zhang., W., 2008- Case Studies Of Groundwater Flow Into Tunnels And An Innovative Water-Gathering System For Water Drainage, Tunnelling And Underground Space Technology, Volume 24, Issue 3, May 2009, Pages 260-268.
Liebel, H. T., Huber, K., Frengstad, B. S., Ramstad, R. K. and Brattli, B., 2012- Thermal response testing of a fractured hard rock aquifer with and without induced groundwater flow, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, ISSN 1435-9529, E-ISSN 1435-9537, Vol. 71, no 3, 435-445 p.
Liu, J., Elsworth, D. and Brady, B., 1997- Analytical evaluation of post excavation hydraulic conductivity field around a tunnel, Int. J. Rock Mech. & Min. Sci. Vol. 34, No. 3-4, 1997 ISSN 0148-9062.
Lombardi, G., 2002- Private communication.
Lugeon, M., 1933- Barrages ET géologie. Dunod, Paris.
Mabee, S. B., Curry, P. J. and Hardcastle, K., 2002- Correlation Of Lineaments To Groundwater Inflows In A Bedrock Tunnel, Vol. 40, No 1-Groundwater- Pages 37- 43.
Milanovic, P., 2007- Nowsoud water conveyance tunnel project, Mission Report, Iran Water & Power Resources Development Company.
Mirmehrabi, H., Hassanpour, J., Morsali, M. and Tarigh Azali, S., 2008- Experiences Gained From Gas and Water Inflow Toward The Tunnel, Case Study: Aspar Anticline, Kermanshah, Iran, 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, 24-26 November 2008, Tehran. Iran.
Moon, J. and Fernandez, G., 2010- Effect of Excavation-Induced Groundwater Level Drawdown on Tunnel Inflow in a Jointed Rock Mass, Engineering Geology, Volume 110, Issues 3-4, 9 February 2010, Pages 33-42.
Morsali, M. and Rezaei, M., 2017- Assessment of H2S emission hazards into tunnels: the Nosoud tunnel case study from Iran, Journal of Environmental Earth Sciences.
Morsali, M., Nakhaei, M., Rezaei, M., Hassanpour, J. and Nasery, H., 2017- A New Approach of Water head estimation based on water inflow into the tunnel Case study: Karaj water conveyance tunnel,, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology.
Nilsen, B., 2014- Characteristics of water ingress on Norwegian subsea tunnels, Rock Mechanic and Rock Engineering, May 2014, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 933-945.
Park, K., Owatsiriwong, A. and Lee, J., 2008- Analytical solution for steady-state groundwater inflow into a drained circular tunnel in a semi-infinite aquifer: A revisit, Tunneling and Underground Space Technology 21 2008, 420.
Raymer, J. H., 2005- groundwater inflow into hard rock tunnels: a new look at inflow equations, RETC proceeding.
Sabale, P. D. and Meshram, S. A., 2012- Effect of dyke structure on groundwater in between Sangamner and Sinnar area: A Case study of Bhokani dyke, International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, Vol. 2, and Issue 4.
Sharifzadeh, M. and Javadi, M., 2017- Groundwater and Underground Excavations: from Theory to Practice [Series: Rock Mechanics and Engineering, volume 3, Chapter 10, Editor: Xia-Ting Feng; CRC Press]
Shrestha, P. K. and Panthi, K. K., 2014- Groundwater effect on faulted rock mass: an evaluation of Modikhola pressure tunnel in the Nepal Himalaya, Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, 26:364-373.
Spross, J. and Larsson, S., 2014- On the observational method for groundwater control in the Northern Link tunnel project, Stockholm, Sweden, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, ISSN 1435-9529, E-ISSN 1435-9537, Vol. 73, no 2, 401-408 p.
Tseng, D. R., Tsai, B. R. and Chang, L. C., 2001- a case study on ground treatment for a rock tunnel with high groundwater ingression in Taiwan, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 16 Ž2001. 175_183.
Wenner, D. and Wannenmacher, H., 2009- Alborz Service tunnel in Iran: TBM tunnelling in difficult ground conditions and its Solutions, Amberg Engineering Ltd., 1st Regional and 8th Iranian Tunneling Conference, Tehran, Iran
West, G., 1983- Comparisons between real and predicted geology in tunnels: examples from recent cases, Quarterly Journals of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology.
Wibberley, Ch. and Shimamoto, T., 2002- Internal structure and permeability and of major strike-slip fault zone: the median tectonic line in Mie prefecture, southwest Japan, Journal of Structural Geology 25, 59, 78.
Yang, F., Lee, C., Kung, W. and Yeh, H., 2009- the impact of tunneling construction on the hydrogeological environment of Tseng-Wen Reservoir Transbasin Diversion Project” in Taiwan, Engineering Geology, vol.101, pp. 39-58.
Yoo, C., 2004- Interaction between tunnelling and groundwater, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 19 2004, 523–524.
Yudan, J., Ranjith, P., Verma, A., Choi, S. and Haque, A., 2006- A parametric study on flow of groundwater in fractured porous media: 3D simulation, 4th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, Singapore.
Zarei, H. R., Uromeihy, A. and Sharifzadeh, M., 2011- Evaluation of high local groundwater inflow to a rock tunnel by characterization of geological features, Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2011, Pages 364-373.
Zareifard, M. and Fahimifar, A., 2014- Effect of seepage forces on circular openings excavated in Hoek–Brown rock mass based on a generalised effective stress principle, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering.