Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D., National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran


In order to determine biostratigraphy, depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Kalat Formation in the Sheikh Syncline (north east of Bojnurd), Four stratigraphic sections including South Sheikh, North Sheikh, Qaleh Zu and Ziarat were selected and sampled. The thickness of the Kalat Formation in the South Sheikh, North Sheikh, Qaleh Zu and Ziarat sections were 25, 16, 25 and 5m respectively, and its lithology consists mainly of brown to yellow limestones. The reason of changes in thickness in studied sections is tectonic factors, subsidence and different rates of sedimentation. The layer of conglomerate in the base part of the Kalat Formation at South Sheikh and Qaleh Zu sections and the layer of sandstone in the base part of the Kalat Formation at Ziarat section were recognized. In the biostratigraphic studies, 15 species belonging 23 genera of foraminifera were recognized and one biozone including Siderolites calcitrapoides-Sirtina orbitoidiformis assemblagezone was identified. The age of the Kalat Formation in all of studied sections based on the above biozone and fossil contents Maastrichtian were determined. Petrographic analysis led to recognition two silliciclastic and eight carbonate facies belonging to four depositional environments including tidal flat, restricted and semi-restricted lagoon, shoal and open marine. Based on the recognized facies and its gradual trend, abundance of shoal facies, absence of reefs and sediment of turbidite flows such as Falling and sliding sediments, the sedimentation of the Kalat Formation was occurred on the homoclinal ramp setting. Based on the vertical changes of facies and recognized depositional environments, one third-order depositional sequences was represented. This depositional sequence consists mainly of shoal facies rich in bioclast, intraclast, benthic foraminifera, echinoid, rudist (Hyporite) and bivalve. MFS of this sequence is represented by open marine facies rich in echinoid.


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