عنوان مقاله [English]
The present research is aimed at investigation of geometry and kinematics of joints, relationships and temporal and spatial distribution of the joints regarding the two deformational events within the Purkan-Vardij thrust sheet. We also studied the relationships between development of different joint sets and the lithological characteristics of layers of the Karaj Formation. Considering outcrops of volcaniclastic and igneous rocks of variable lithology, we have divided them into five different rock units including thick-bedded to massive tuffs, thin- to medium-bedded tuffs, tuff-shale-sandstone sequence, shale, and igneous units. Joint study was carried out using selection method, and in part using listing method, which are useful for quick survey and statistical purposes. Joint classification was carried out using concentrations of pole to joint planes. We have used the fracture spacing index (FSI), which is an important parameter in controlling morphology and erodibility of the rock units; it is also useful for prediction of joint spacing in other layers and in surrounding areas. These characteristics are useful in road construction, tunneling and other engineering projects. A comparison of the FSI in different rock units indicates that the intrusive bodies and thick-bedded units develop a highly variable FSI with a wide range of spacings, which in most cases due to lower concentration of the joints show lower erodibility as compared to the other rock units, and therefore have more relief in their outcrops. Two major joint sets, J1 and J2, show the highest frequency within the classified joint sets. Both of these sets are of extension joint type, and their strikes indicate the s1 direction during their development. Our study in this research confirms that amount of the strain produced by the joints is very small.