عنوان مقاله [English]
The Kopet Dagh basin was formed during and after the collision of Turan plate with Iran plate before late Carnian (about 225 m.y. ago). It is located in the northeast of Iran and has a WNW to ESE trend. Neyzar Formation is composed of siliciclastic sediments and sandy shale and sandy limestone. This unit is widespread in the east and northeast parts of the basin. To determine the stratigraphy, microfossils, microfacies and depositional environment of Neyzar Formation, three stratigraphic sections were selected and measurement and detailed sampling carried out on each of them. These sections from east to west are as fallows :
1) Tang-e Neyzar (Neyzar gorge) section
2) Tang-e Chahchaheh section
3) Jalil abad section
In the previous studies, the base and top boundaries of Neyzar Formation with Abtalkh and Kalat Formations were reported conformable and transitional (Afshar Harb, 1373). However, according to present investigations in eastern regions, lower boundary of Neyzar Formation with Abtalkh Formation in sections 1 and 2 are disconformable (as a Paleosol). This boundary in the section 3 is conformable and transitional. The upper boundary of Neyzar Formation with Kalat Formation in 1, 2 and 3 sections are disconformable (as a paleosoil).
Two types of facies were identified based on micropaleontologic and petrographic studies: 1) Siliciclastic facies, 2) Carbonate facies. Based on microfacies studies it seems that the siliciclastic parts of Neyzar Formation was deposited in a lagoonal-barrier island environments and the carbonaceous parts in a shallow carbonate platform (ramp type).
In most of the published reports and articles Neyzar Formation was introduced as low fossil bearing unit with no index–fossil. The age of this formation was determined only by the basis of its stratigraphical situation, but in the present investigation, in addition, 41 genera and 30 species of microfossils have been identified for the first time from index fossils such as:
Orbitoides apiculata, Orbitoides tissoti, Lepidorbitoides sp., Siderolites calcitrapoides, Pseudosiderolites vidali, Abathomphalus mayaroensis.
These fossil assemblages suggest the Maastrichtian, especially Late Maastrichtian age for Neyzar Formation.