پالینوفاسیس و محیط دیرینه بخش مارنی سازند فرخی (ایران مرکزی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه زمین‌شناسی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زمین‌شناسی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

سازند فرخی یکی از واحدهای سنگی کرتاسه بالایی حوضه رسوبی ایران مرکزی و دارای ترکیب سنگی آهک، مارن و آهک مارنی با لایه‌هایی از سنگ‌آهک فسیل‌دار است. این سازند به‎طور همشیب روی سازند هفت‎تومان قرار دارد و مرز بالایی آن با سازند چوپانان ناهمشیب است. در این پژوهش 23 نمونه از بخش مارنی سازند فرخی برداشت و 90 اسلاید پالینولوژیکی از آنها تهیه و مطالعه شد. بررسی عوامل آلی موجود در سازند نشان‎دهنده حفظ‌شدگی به نسبت خوب مواد آلی در بخش‌های مارنی است و نرخ رسوب‌گذاری و میزان اکسیژن متغیر را نشان می‌دهد. مطالعات پالینوفاسیس سازند نشان می‌دهد که بخش مارنی در محیط دریایی کم‌ژرفا تا باز با انرژی متوسط نهشته و یک پالینوفاسیس برای آن تشخیص داده شده ‌است. بر پایه داینوفلاژله‌های شاخص محیط، محیط گرم و به نسبت کم‌ژرفا با انرژی متوسط و شوری متغیر برای بخش مارنی سازند فرخی در زمان انبایش رسوبات پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Palynofacies and paleoenvironment of marl segment in Farokhi formation (Central Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Allameh 1
  • B Torabian 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Geology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
2 M.Sc, Department of Geology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Farrokhi Formation is a Cretaceous rock unit in Central Iran that lithologically contains lime, marl and marly lime accompanied by layers of fossiliferous limestones. This formation lays conformably over the Haft-Tuman Formation, while its upper boundary is disconformable with Chupanan Formation. In this study, 23 rock samples from marl segment of the Farokhi Formation were prepared palynologically and their various palynological constituents were characterized and quantified by percent. Assessing the organic elements of formation demonstrated fair preservation of organic matters in marl segments and allowed determination of the sedimentation rate and oxygen content. Palynofacies investigation signifies that marl segment has been deposited in shallow to open marine environment with medium energy, and one palynofacies has been diagnosed for it. According to typical dinoflagellate cysts, a warm and rather shallow environment with medium energy and variable salinity is suggested for the period of sedimentation of the marl segment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Palynofacies
  • Paleoenvironment
  • Dinoflagellate
  • Farokhi
  • Central Iran

آقانباتی، س. ع.، 1383- زمینشناسی ایران، وزارت صنایع و معادن، سازمان زمین شناسی و اکتشاف معدنی کشور، 606 ص.

ترابیان، ب. و علامه، م.، 1390- اولین معرفی داینوفلاژله‌های کرتاسه فوقانی ایران مرکزی در غرب روستای فرخی، همایش ملی کاربرد علوم زمین در تحقیقات بنیادی کشور، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال.

ترابیان، ب.، علامه، م. و آریایی، ع. ا.، 1390- پالینوفاسیس و محیط رسوبی بخش های ‌مارنی سازند فرخی در حوضه رسوبی ایران مرکزی (غرب روستای فرخی)، نخستین کنگره تخصصی رسوب‌شناسی و چینه‌شناسی ایران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد، 178 ص.

رزمجویی، آ.، 1390- سنگ‌چینه‌نگاری و زیست‌چینه‌نگاری سازند فرخی در شمال باختری خور، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، پژوهشکده علوم زمین، 202 ص.

رضایی یزدی‌نژاد، ر.، 1393- میکروپالئونتولوژی بخش‌های شیلی سازند فرخی بر مبنای فرامینیفرا (حوضه رسوبی ایران مرکزی)، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد، 150 ص.

سیف، ح.، مجیدی‌فرد، م. ر. و محتاط، ط.، 1392- یافته‌های نوین چینه‌نگاری زیستی سازند فرخی واقع در جنوب غرب خور (ایران مرکزی) بر اساس روزن بران پلانکتونیک، سی و دومین گردهمایی و نخستین کنگره بین المللی تخصصی علوم زمین.

 Aistov, L., Melnikov, B., Krivyakin, B., Morozov, L. and Kiristaev, V., 1984- Geology of the Khur Area (Central Iran). Explanatory Text of the Khur Quadrangle Map1:250.000, V/O Technoexport Report 20, pp. 1e130.

Al-Ameri, T. K. , Al-Najar, T. K. and Batten, D. J., 2001- Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies indication of depositional environment and source potential for hydrocarbon: the mid Cretaceous Nahr Umr and lower Madud formation, Iraq. Cretaceous  research 22: 735-745.

Allameh, M. and Taherpour Khalil Abad, M., 2014- Systematic Interpretation Of Silicified Specimens of Upper Cretaceous Echinocorys ex. gr. scutata (Leske, 1778), Farokhi Formation, Central Iran. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran 25(3): 237 – 251.

Batten, D. J., 1979- Miospores and other acid-resistant microfossils from the Aptian/Albian of holes 400A and 402A, DSDP-IPOD leg 48, Bay of Biscay. Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 48: 579-587.‏

Batten, D. J., 1996- Chapter 26B. Palynofacies and petroleum potential.Palynology: Principles and Applica tions (eds. J. Jansonius and DC McGregor). Am. Ass. Strat. Palynol. Foundation 3: 1065-1084.‏

Bombardiere, L. and Gorin, G. E., 2000- Stratigraphical and lateral distribution of sedimentary organic matter in Upper Jurassic carbonates  of  SE  France, Sedimentary  Geology 132: 177-203.

Brinkhuis, H. and Schioler, P., 1996- Palynology of the Geulhemmerberg Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary section (Limburg, SE Netherlands). In: Brinkhuis H., Smit J., editors. The Geulhemmerberg Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary section (Maastrichtian Type Area, SE Netherlands). Geologie en Mijnbouw 75: 193-213.

Brinkhuis, H. and Zachariasse, W. J., 1988- Dinoflagellate cysts, sea level changes and planktonic foraminifers across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary at El Haria, northwest Tunisia. Marine Micropaleotology 13: 153-191.

Brinkhuis, H., Bujak,  J. P., Smit, J., Versteegh, G. J. M. and Visscher, H., 1998- Dinoflagellate-based sea surface temperature reconstruction across the Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 141: 67-83.

Cross, A. T., Thompson, G. G. and Zaitzeff, J. B., 1966- Source and distribution of palynomorphs in bottom sediments, southern part of Gulf of California. Marine Geology 4(6): 467-524.‏

De Vernal, A., Turon, J. L. and Guiot, J., 1994- Dinoflagellate cyst distribution in high-latitude marine environments and quantitative reconstruction of sea-surface salinity, temperature, and seasonality. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 31(1): 48 – 62.

Downie, C., Hussain, M. A. and Williams, G. I., 1971- Dinoflagllate cyst and Acritarch association in the Paleogene of Southeast England. Geoscience and Man 3(1): 29-35.

Evitt, W. R., 1963- A discussion and proposal concerning fossil dinoflagllates hystrichospheres,andacritarches 320p.

Firth, J. V., 1993- Dinoflagellate assemblages and sea-level fluctuations in the Maastrichtian of southwest Georgia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 79(3): 179-204.‏

Fisher, M. J., 1980- Kerogen distribution and depositional environments in the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire UK. In Proceedings of the 4th International Palynological Conference (Lucknow) 2: 574-580.‏

Gedl, P., 2004- Dinoflagellate cyst record of the deep-sea Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Uzgruň, Carpathian Mountains, Czech Republic, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 230(1): 257-273.‏

Gorin, G. E. and Steffen, D., 1991- Organic facies as a tool for recording eustatic variations in marine fine-grained carbonates-example of the Berriasian stratotype at Berrias (Ardèche, SE France). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 85(3-4), 303-320.‏

Guasti, E., Kouwenhoven, T. J., Brinkhuis, H. and Speijer, R., 2005- Paleocen  sea level  and  productivity  changes  at the  Southern  Tethyan  margin  (Elkef, Tunisia). Marine Micropaleontology 55 : 1-17.

Habib, D. and Miller, J. A., 1989- Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 74(1): 23-47.‏

Hart, G. F., 1986- Origin and classification of organic matter in clastic systems. Palynology 10(1): 1-23.‏

Heimhofer, U., Hochuli, P. A., Herrle, J. O. and Weissert, H., 2006- Contrasting origins of Early Cretaceous black shales in the Vocontian Basin: Evidence from palynological and calcareous nannofossil records, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 235(1): 93-109.

Jaramillo, C. A., Rueda, M. J. and Mora, G., 2006- Cenozoic plant diversity in the Neotropics. Science 311(5769): 1893–1896.

Köthe, A., 1990- Paleogene dinoflagellates from Northwest Germany: biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment. Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe A 118: 3–111.

Lamolda, M. A. and Mao, S., 1999- The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event and dinocyst record at Ganuza (northern Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology  150(1–2): 65–82.

Leereveld, H., 1995- Dinoflagellate cysts from the Lower Cretaceous Río Argos succession (SE Spain). Ph.D. thesis,Laboratory of  Palaeobotany. Palynology. Utrecht University, The Netherlands 175 p.

Lentin, J. K. and Williams, G. L., 1980- Dinoflagellate provincialism with emphasis on Campanian peridiniaceans. AASP Contributions Series 7, American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation 47 pp.

Lewis, J., Ellegaard, M., Hallett, R., Harding, I. and Rochon, A., 2003- Environmental control of cyst morphology in gonyaulaeoid dinoflagellates. In:Matsuoka, K.;Yoshida, M. &Iwataki, M., eds., Dino 7, Seventh International Conference on Modern and fossil Dinoflagellates, Nagasaki, Japan, Abstract Volume, Additional abstract.

Lewis, J., Harris, A. S. D., Jones, K. J. and Edmonds, R. L., 1999- Long-term survival of marine planktonic diatoms and dinoflagellates in stored sediment samples. Journal of Plankton Research 21, 343–354.

Lister,  J. K. and Batten, D. J., 1988- Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental distribution of Early Cretaceous dinoflagellate cysts in the Hurlands Farm borehole, West Sussex, England. Palaeontographica Abteilung B 210(1-3): 9-89.‏

Mahmoud, M. S. and Moawad, A. R. M., 2000- Jurassic-Cretaceous (Bathonian to Cenomanian) palynology and stratigraphy of the West Tiba-1 borehole, northern Western Desert, Egypt,  Journal of African Earth Sciences 30(2): 401-416.

Parry, C. C., Whitley, P. K. J. and Simpson, R. D. H., 1981- Integration of palynological and sedimentological methods in facies analysis of the Brent Formation. In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of North-West Europe pp. 205-215.

Quattrocchio, M. E., Martinez, M. A., Carpinelli, P. A. and Volkheimer, W., 2006- Early Cretaceous palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and palaeoenvironments of well sections in northeastern Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: Cretaceous Research 27: 584-602.

Schrank, E., 1984- Organic-geochemical and palynological studies of  Dakhla Shale profile (Late Cretaceous) in southeast Egypt. Part A: Succession of microfloras and depositional environment. – Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen A 50: 189-207.

Siegl- Farkas, A. and Wagreich, M., 1997- Dinoflagellate  stratigraphy  of the Senonian Formations of the Transdanubian Range .Acta Geologica  Hungarica  40(1): 73 - 100.

Skupien, P. and Mohamed, O., 2008- Campanian to Maastrichtian palynofacies and dinoflagellate cysts of the Silesian Unit, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic. Bulletin of Geosciences 83(2): 207–224.

Slimani, H., Louwye, S. and Toufiq, A. K., 2010- Dinoflagellate cysts from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary at Ouled Haddou, southeastern Rif, Morocco: biostratigraphy, paleoenvironments and paleobiogeography, Palynology 34(1): 90–124.

Sluijs, A., Pross, J. and Brinkhuis, H., 2005- From greenhouse to icehouse; organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts as paleoenvironmental indicators in the Paleogene, Earth-Science Reviews 68: 281–315.

Stanley, D. J., 1986- Turbidity current transport of organic-rich sediments: Alpine and Mediterranean examples. Marine geology 70(1): 85-101.‏

Svobodová, M., Švábenická, L., Skupien, P. and Hradecká, L., 2011- Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Outer Western Carpathians (Silesian Unit, Czech Republic), Geologica Carpathica 62: 309–332.

Taylor, T. N., 1982- Ultrastructural studied of Paleozoic seed fern pollen:sporoderm development 298p.

Traverse, A., 1998- Palaeopalynology. 1st edition, London, Unwin Hyman, Boston 600pp

Traverse, A., 2007- Paleopalynology, Topics in Geobiology second edition.Springer, Dordrecht 813 pp.

Tyson, R. V., 1987- The genesis and palynofacies characteristics of marine petroleum source rocks. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 26(1): 47-67.‏

Tyson, R. V., 1989- late Jurassic palynofacies trend,Piper and kimmerdgian clay Formation ,UK onshore and Northern sea,in Batten D.J&keen M. C (eds) Northwest Europan.Micropaleontology and palynology 135-172.

Tyson, R. V., 1993- Palynofacies analysis: Applied Micropaleontology 153-191.

Van der Zwan, C. J., 1990- Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous of the Draugen Field, offshore Mid Norway. Review of palaeobotany and palynology 62(1): 157-186.‏

Van Pelt, R. S. and Habib, D., 1988- Dinoflagellate species abundance and organic facies in Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone signal episodes of transgression and regression. In 7th International Palynological Congress, Brisbane  p168.

Van Waveren, I. and Visscher, H., 1994- Analysis  of  the  composition  and  selective  preservation  of  organic  matter  in  surfical  deep-sea  sediment  from  a  highproductivity  area  (Banda Sa,  Indonesia).  Palaeogeogrphy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 112: 85-111.

Vonhof, H. B., Smit, J., Brinkhuis, H., Montanari, A. and Nederbragt, A. J, 2000- Global cooling accelerated by early late Eocene impacts? Geology 28(8): 687-690.

Wall, D. and Dale, B., 1974- Dinoflagellates in Late Quaternary deep-water sediments of Black sea- geology, chemistry, and biology, E.T. Degans and D.A. Ross (eds). Tulsa, Oklohoma: American Asssociation of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir No: 20: 364-80.

Wall, D., Dale, B. and Harda, K., 1973- Description of new fossil dinoflagellates from the late Quaternary of the Black sea. Micropaleontology 19: 18-31.

Wall, D., Dale, B., Lohmann, G. P. and Smith, W. K., 1977- The environmental and climatic distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in modern marine sediments from regions in the North and South Atlantic Oceans and adjacent seas. Mar. Micropaleontology  2:121-200.

Whitaker, M., 1984- The usage of palynology in definition of Troll Field geology. In Reduction of uncertainties in innovative reservoir geomodelling.'Offshore'Northern Seas Conference (No. 6).‏

Williams, D. B. and Sarjeant, W. A., 1967- Organic-walled microfossils as depth and shoreline indicators. Marine geology 5(5): 389-412.‏

Wilmsen, M., Fürsich, F. T. and Majidifard, M. R., 2012- Porosphaera globularis (Phillips, 1829) (Porifera, Calcarea) from the Maastrichtian of the Farokhi Formation of Central Iran, Cretaceous Research 33: 91-96.

Zonneveld, K., Versteegh, G. and Lange, G., 1997- Preservation of organic-Walled danoflagellate cyst in defferent oxygen regies: a 1000 year natural experiment. Marine Micropaleontology 29: 393- 405.