عنوان مقاله [English]
Lead and zinc mineralization occurs in limestones of the Upper Jurassic Lar Formation at Pichamto, which is located 38 km northwest of Shahroud city in East Alborz structural zone. Lead and zinc mineralization emplaced in host rocks as lens- and vein-shaped bodies due to replacement, and open-space and fracture fillings. Petrographical and mineralogical studies indicate that smithsonite, calamine, galena, and cerrusite make the main ore minerals, whereas calcite, dolomite, aragonite, iron oxides, quartz and clay minerals are the gangue minerals. Wall-rock alteration includes carbonate recrystallization, dolomitization and brecciation. Fluid inclusion studies indicate two-phase (L+V) liquid- and gas-rich types. Final ice melting temperatures measured in inclusions rage from -19.8 to -8.3 °C. The salinity of fluid inclusions vary between 12 and 22.22 wt.% NaCl equivalent with an average value of 15.41 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Homogenization temperatures for fluid inclusions temperature range between 70 °C and 220 °C, with 176 °C as the average homogenization temperature. The salinity and homogenization temperature ranges for fluid inclusions in the Pichamto deposit suggest that ore-forming fluid derived from basinal brines, similar to hydrothermal solutions in MVT-type Pb-Zn deposits. The δ34S values for two galena samples from Pichamto deposit are +15.6 and +16.2 ‰. These values reveal that the seawater sulfate is the most probable source of sulfur. The reduced sulfur was most likely supplied through thermochemical sulfate reduction. The δ13C values of hydrothermal calcite samples are −4.16 ‰ and -9.17 ‰. The δ18O values in calcite samples are 2.6 ‰ and 0.8 ‰. The δ18O values in calcite overlap with the oxygen isotopic composition of Phanerozoic seawater, indicating possible important participation of Phanerozoic seawater in the ore-forming fluid. The negative δ13C values of calcite samples indicate that the organic materials within the host rocks contributed significantly to the hydrothermal fluid. The δ13C and δ18O values in smithsonite are -7.21 ‰ and -3.41 ‰, respectively. The light carbon isotopic composition of smithsonite reveal the secondary origin of the mineral, and the contribution of meteoric waters and waters containing CO2 derived from decomposition of organic materials in its formation.The Pichamto deposit is comparable to MVT-type Pb-Zn deposits from several points of view including tectonic setting, host rock, wall rock alteration and the source of ore-forming fluids and materials, and have formed during two primary (sulfides formation) and supergene (carbonates and silicates formation) stages.